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Full text of "The 1990 CIA World Factbook"

***The Project Gutenberg Etext of The 1997 CIA World Factbook***
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The 1997 CIA World Factbook

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The 1997 CIA World Factbook


TABLE OF CONTENTS

	Introduction
	A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and the World Factbook
	Notes and Definitions
	Guide to Country Profiles (Categories, Fields and Subfields)

	Afghanistan
	Albania
	Algeria
	American Samoa
	Andorra
	Angola
	Anguilla
	Antarctica
	Antigua and Barbuda
	Arctic Ocean
	Argentina
	Armenia
	Aruba
	Ashmore and Cartier Islands
	Atlantic Ocean
	Australia
	Austria
	Azerbaijan
	The Bahamas
	Bahrain
	Baker Island
	Bangladesh
	Barbados
	Bassas da India
	Belarus
	Belgium
	Belize
	Benin
	Bermuda
	Bhutan
	Bolivia
	Bosnia and Herzegovina
	Botswana
	Bouvet Island
	Brazil
	British Indian Ocean Territory
	British Virgin Islands
	Brunei
	Bulgaria
	Burkina Faso
	Burma
	Burundi
	Cambodia
	Cameroon
	Canada
	Cape Verde
	Cayman Islands
	Central African Republic
	Chad
	Chile
	China
	Christmas Island
	Clipperton Island
	Cocos (Keeling) Islands
	Colombia
	Comoros
	Congo, Democratic Republic of the
	Congo, Republic of the
	Cook Islands
	Coral Sea Islands
	Costa Rica
	Cote d'Ivoire
	Croatia
	Cuba
	Cyprus
	Czech Republic
	Denmark
	Djibouti
	Dominica
	Dominican Republic
	Ecuador
	Egypt
	El Salvador
	Equatorial Guinea
	Eritrea
	Estonia
	Ethiopia
	Europa Island
	Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
	Faroe Islands
	Fiji
	Finland
	France
	French Guiana
	French Polynesia
	French Southern and Antarctic Lands
	Gabon
	The Gambia
	Gaza Strip
	Georgia
	Germany
	Ghana
	Gibraltar
	Glorioso Islands
	Greece
	Greenland
	Grenada
	Guadeloupe
	Guam
	Guatemala
	Guernsey
	Guinea
	Guinea-Bissau
	Guyana
	Haiti
	Heard Island and McDonald Islands
	Holy See (Vatican City)
	Honduras
	Hong Kong
	Howland Island
	Hungary
	Iceland
	India
	Indian Ocean
	Indonesia
	Iran
	Iraq
	Ireland
	Israel
	Italy
	Jamaica
	Jan Mayen
	Japan
	Jarvis Island
	Jersey
	Johnston Atoll
	Jordan
	Juan de Nova Island
	Kazakstan
	Kenya
	Kingman Reef
	Kiribati
	Korea, North
	Korea, South
	Kuwait
	Kyrgyzstan
	Laos
	Latvia
	Lebanon
	Lesotho
	Liberia
	Libya
	Liechtenstein
	Lithuania
	Luxembourg
	Macau
	Macedonia,
	Madagascar
	Malawi
	Malaysia
	Maldives
	Mali
	Malta
	Man, Isle of
	Marshall Islands
	Martinique
	Mauritania
	Mauritius
	Mayotte
	Mexico
	Micronesia, Federated States of
	Midway Islands
	Moldova
	Monaco
	Mongolia
	Montserrat
	Morocco
	Mozambique
	Namibia
	Nauru
	Navassa Island
	Nepal
	Netherlands
	Netherlands Antilles
	New Caledonia
	New Zealand
	Nicaragua
	Niger
	Nigeria
	Niue
	Norfolk Island
	Northern Mariana Islands
	Norway
	Oman
	Pacific Ocean
	Pakistan
	Palau
	Palmyra Atoll
	Panama
	Papua New Guinea
	Paracel Islands
	Paraguay
	Peru
	Philippines
	Pitcairn Islands
	Poland
	Portugal
	Puerto Rico
	Qatar
	Reunion
	Romania
	Russia
	Rwanda
	Saint Helena
	Saint Kitts and Nevis
	Saint Lucia
	Saint Pierre and Miquelon
	Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
	San Marino
	Sao Tome and Principe
	Saudi Arabia
	Senegal
	Serbia and Montenegro
	Seychelles
	Sierra Leone
	Singapore
	Slovakia
	Slovenia
	Solomon Islands
	Somalia
	South Africa
	South Georgia and the
	Spain
	Spratly Islands
	Sri Lanka
	Sudan
	Suriname
	Svalbard
	Swaziland
	Sweden
	Switzerland
	Syria
	Taiwan
	Tajikistan
	Tanzania
	Thailand
	Togo
	Tokelau
	Tonga
	Trinidad and Tobago
	Tromelin Island
	Tunisia
	Turkey
	Turkmenistan
	Turks and Caicos Islands
	Tuvalu
	Uganda
	Ukraine
	United Arab Emirates
	United Kingdom
	United States
	Uruguay
	Uzbekistan
	Vanuatu
	Venezuela
	Vietnam
	Virgin Islands
	Wake Island
	Wallis and Futuna
	West Bank
	Western Sahara
	Western Samoa
	World
	Yemen
	Zambia
	Zimbabwe

______________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION

The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information was provided by the American Geophysical Union, Bureau of
the Census, Central Intelligence Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency,
Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of State, Foreign Broadcast
Information Service, Maritime Administration, National Imagery and
Mapping Agency, National Maritime Intelligence Center, National
Science Foundation (Antarctic Sciences Section), Office of Insular
Affairs, US Board on Geographic Names, US Coast Guard, and other
public and private sources.

The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without
permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section
403m). Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil
and criminal penalties.

Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:
Central Intelligence Agency
Attn: Public Affairs Staff
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone: [1](703)482-0623
FAX: [1](703)482-1739

______________________________________________________________________

A BRIEF HISTORY OF BASIC INTELLIGENCE AND THE WORLD FACTBOOK

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is
acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to
policymakers. Information is raw data from any source that may be
fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or
wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected,
integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished
intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to
be delivered to the policymaker.

There are three types of finished intelligence: basic, current, and
estimative. Basic intelligence is the fundamental and factual
reference material on a country or issue, current intelligence reports
on new developments, and estimative intelligence judges probable
outcomes. The three are mutually supporting because basic intelligence
is the foundation on which the other two are based, current
intelligence helps to continually update the knowledge foundation, and
estimative intelligence serves to revise overall interpretations of
country and issue prospects for both basic and current intelligence.
The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and National
Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished
intelligence.

The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since
the days of George Washington, but only since World War II have they
been coordinated on a governmentwide basis. Three programs have
highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since
that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2)
the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3) The World Factbook.

During World War II intelligence consumers realized that the
production of basic intelligence by different components of the US
Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting
information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home
to Congressional and executive branch leaders the need for integrating
and coordinating departmental reports to national policymakers.
Detailed general information was needed not only on such major powers
as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest.
In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to
launch amphibious operations against many islands about which
information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities
resolved that the United States should never again be caught
unprepared.

In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of
Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of
the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort
should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April
1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study
Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint
Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first
interdepartmental basic intelligence program and fulfilled the needs
of the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated digest of
strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the
board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war
effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received including a
statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean
Areas, which said "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work
for the shore-based planners."

The need for even more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar
world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author
on national security, when he wrote in The Future of American Secret
Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world
leadership in peace requires more elaborate intelligence than war.
"The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities-not
just the enemy and his war production."

The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and
officially began operating 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October
1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational
responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security
Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which officially
authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a
peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate
NIS sections could be produced, it was necessary to develop gazetteers
and maps for an accurate presentation of intelligence by the
contributing agencies. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled
the names, the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers, and
CIA produced the maps.

The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the
structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955
that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication
which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all
areas of the world. . . . There will always be a continuing
requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was
created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS
studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962,
and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS
program was terminated except for the Factbook and gazetteers in 1973.
The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public
with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The 1996
edition was the first to be printed by GPO. The year 1997 marks the
50th anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence
Agency and the 54th year of continuous basic intelligence support to
the US Government by The World Factbook and its two predecessor
programs.

______________________________________________________________________

NOTES AND DEFINITIONS

There have been some significant changes in this edition. A schema or
Guide to Country Profiles has been added. The new maps and flags
accompanying each country profile are in color. The country name Zaire
has been officially changed to Democratic Republic of the Congo. Congo
is now referred to as Republic of the Congo. New reference maps of the
United States, Ethnolinguistic Groups in Afghanistan, and Central
Africa have been included. Introduction is a new category with two
entries--Current issues and Historical perspective that now appear in
only a few country profiles, but will be added to all countries in the
future. The Area--comparative entry was separated from the Area entry.
The lowest point and highest point information has been removed from
the Terrain entry and put into a new entry called Elevation extremes.
The former Environment entry has been replaced by three new
entries--Natural hazards, Environment--current issues, and
Environment--international agreements. US diplomatic representation
has been renamed Diplomatic representation from the US in order to
parallel the Diplomatic representation in the US entry. The former
Airports entry has been split into three separate entries--Airports,
Airports--with paved runways, and Airports--with unpaved runways. The
Defense category has been renamed Military. The Branches entry has
been renamed Military branches. The former Manpower availability entry
has been replaced by four new entries--Military manpower--military
age, Military manpower--availability, Military manpower--fit for
military service, and Military manpower--reaching military age
annually. The former Defense expenditures entry has been replaced by
two new entries--Military expenditures--dollar figure, and Military
expenditures--percent of GDP. Transnational Issues is a new category
that now includes only two existing entries (Illicit drugs and
Disputes--international) but additional entries will be considered in
the future.

Abbreviations: This information is included in Appendix A:
Abbreviations which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in
the Factbook with their expansions.

Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the numbers,
designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have
been reported but not yet acted on by BGN are noted.

Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the population
according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14
years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a
population will affect a country's investment pattern. Countries with
young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more
in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage
ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age
structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues.
For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to
find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture--products: This entry is a rank ordering of major crops
and products starting with the most important.

Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports. The runway(s)
may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, dirt,
sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be usable. Not all airports have
facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports--with paved runways: This entry gives the total number of
airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces). For
airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is
included according to the following five groups--(1) over 3,047 m, (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5)
under 914 m. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control. Only airports with usable runways
are included in this listing.

Airports--with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total number of
airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces).
For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is
included according to the following five groups--(1) over 3,047 m, (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5)
under 914 m. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control. Only airports with usable runways
are included in this listing.

Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.
Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of
all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines,
including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers).

Area--comparative: This entry provides an area comparison based on
total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US
or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised)
provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are
compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in
Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births
during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude
birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in
determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the
level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget: This entry includes revenues, total expenditures, and capital
expenditures.

Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical weather
regimes throughout the year.

Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary between
the land area (including islands) and the sea.

Communications: This category deals with the means of exchanging
information and includes the radio, telephone, and television entries.

Communications--note: This entry includes miscellaneous communications
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution: This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions,
and major amendments.

Country map: Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in
color. The maps were produced from the best information available at
the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed
subsequently.

Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's name
approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an
example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional
short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short
form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation.
See the Terminology note regarding the use of the term "country."

Currency: This entry identifies the local medium of exchange and its
basic subunit.

Current issues: This entry briefly characterizes major geographic,
social, political, and military developments in the past 12 months and
may include a statement about one or two key future trends. This entry
appears for only a few countries at the present time, but will be
added to all countries in the future.

Data code: This entry gives the official US Government digraph that
precisely identifies every land entity without overlap, duplication,
or omission. AF, for example, is the data code for Afghanistan. This
two-letter country code is a standardized geopolitical data element
promulgated in the Federal Information Processing Standards
Publication (FIPS) 10-4 by the National Institute of Standards and
Technology at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the
Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the US Department of
State. The data code is used to eliminate confusion and
incompatibility in the collection, processing, and dissemination of
area-specific data and is particularly useful for interchanging data
between databases. Appendix F cross-references various country codes
and Appendix G does the same thing for hydrographic codes. Data
codes-country: This information is presented in Appendix F:
Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which includes the US
Government approved Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS),
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and Internet
country codes.

Data codes--hydrographic: This information is presented in Appendix G:
Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes which includes the
International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), Aeronautical Chart and
Information Center (ACIC; now National Imagery and Mapping Agency or
NIMA), and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) hydrographic codes. The
US Government has not yet approved a standard for hydrographic data
codes similar to the FIPS 10-4 standard for country data codes.

Dates of information: The information cutoff date was 1 January 1997,
although a few important changes after that date have been included.
Most demographic statistics are estimates for 1997.

Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of deaths
during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude
death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the
mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current
mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly
affected by the age distribution, and most countries will eventually
show a rise in the rate, in spite of continued declines in mortality
at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.

Debt--external: This entry gives the total amount of public foreign
financial obligations.

Dependency status: This entry describes the formal relationship
between a nonindependent entity and a sovereign nation.

Dependent areas: This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all
nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular
sovereign nation.

Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic relations
with 184 nations, including 178 of the 185 UN members (excluded UN
members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia,
and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with
6 nations that are not in the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu. Diplomatic representation from the US:
This entry includes the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing
address, telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations. Diplomatic
representation in the US: This entry includes the chief of mission,
chancery address, telephone number, FAX number, consulate general
locations, consulate locations, honorary consulate general locations,
and honorary consulate locations.

Disputes--international: This entry includes a wide variety of
situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to
unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding
disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has
been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other
situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such
as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues,
however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance
or recognition by the US Government.

Economic aid: This entry refers to bilateral commitments of official
development assistance (ODA) and other official flows (OOF). ODA is
defined as financial assistance which is concessional in character,
has the main objective to promote economic development and welfare of
LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least 25%. OOF transactions
are also official government assistance, but with a main objective
other than economic development and with a grant element less than
25%. OOF transactions include official export credits (such as Ex-Im
Bank credits), official equity and portfolio investment, and debt
reorganization by the official sector that does not meet concessional
terms. Aid is considered to have been committed when agreements are
initialed by the parties involved and constitute a formal declaration
of intent. The entry is separated into two components--donor and
recipient.

Economy: This category includes the entries dealing with the size,
development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land,
labor, and capital.

Economy--overview: This entry briefly describes the type of economy,
including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic
development, the most important natural resources, and the unique
areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events
and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a
statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.

Electricity--capacity: This entry gives the maximum designed potential
for electricity production expressed in kilowatts.

Electricity--consumption per capita: This entry gives the figure for
annual electricity generation plus net imports or minus net exports,
divided by total population for the same year expressed in kilowatt
hours.

Electricity--production: This entry gives the annual amount of
electricity actually generated expressed in kilowatt hours.

Elevation extremes: This entry includes both the highest point and the
lowest point.

Entities: Some of the nations, dependent areas, areas of special
sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not
independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US
Government. "Nation" refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependent area" refers to
a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way
with a nation. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for
page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US
Board on Geographic Names and may include nations, dependencies, or
other geographic entities. There are a total of 266 separate
geographic entities in The World Factbook that may be categorized as
follows:

NATIONS

184 nations that are UN members (excluding the former Yugoslavia,
which is still counted by the UN)
7 nations that are not members of the UN--Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, Tonga, Tuvalu

OTHER

1 Taiwan

DEPENDENT AREAS

6 Australian dependencies--Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas
Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 Danish dependencies--Faroe Islands, Greenland
2 Dutch dependencies--Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
16 French dependencies--Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa
Island, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic
Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de Nova Island, Martinique,
Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin
Island, Wallis and Futuna
3 New Zealand dependencies--Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norwegian dependencies--Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 Portuguese dependency--Macau
16 UK dependencies--Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn
Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,
Turks and Caicos Islands
14 US dependencies--American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland
Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

  6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West
Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

  4 oceans--Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean
  1 World
__________

266 Total

Environment--current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and
important environmental problems.

Environment--international agreements: This entry separates country
participation in international environmental agreements into two
levels--party to and signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in
alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.

Environmental agreements: This information is presented in Appendix D:
Selected International Environmental Agreements which includes the
name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into
force, objective, and parties by category.

Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups
starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population. Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of
a nation's monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of
time, as expressed in units of local currency per US dollar and as
determined by international market forces or official fiat.

Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields. Chief of
state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country
who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may
not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head
of government includes the name and title of the administrative leader
who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the
government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of
advisers and the method of selection for members. Elections includes
the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last
election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the
percent of vote for each candidate in the last election. In the UK,
the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head
of government. In the US, the President is both the chief of state and
the head of government.

Exports: This entry includes three subfields. Total value is the total
US dollar amount of exports on an f.o.b. basis. Commodities is a rank
ordering of exported products starting with the most important and
sometimes includes the percent of dollar value. Partners is a rank
ordering of trading partners starting with the most important and
sometimes includes the percent of dollar value.

Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for
a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the
calendar year but may begin in any month. FY93/94 refers to the fiscal
year that began in calendar year 1993 and ended in calendar year 1994.
All yearly references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated
as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).

Flag description: This entry provides a written flag description
produced from actual flags or the best information available at the
time the entry was written. The flags of independent nations are used
by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local
flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

Flag graphic: Most versions of the Factbook provide a color flag
available at the beginning of the country entry. The flag graphics
were produced from actual flags or the best information available at
the time of preparation. The flags of independent nations are used by
their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local
flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.

GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all
final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP
dollar estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power
parity (PPP) calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more
information.

GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates for all
countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations
rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The
PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price
weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and
services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP
method provide a better comparison of economic well-being between
countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the
corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate.
When converted at PPP rates, $1,000 will buy the same market basket of
goods in any country. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are
quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough
approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on extrapolation
of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program
(UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the
University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In contrast, currency
exchange rates depend on a variety of international and domestic
financial forces that often have little relation to domestic output.
In developing countries with weak currencies the exchange rate
estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP
estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates may suddenly go up or down by
10% or more because of market forces or official fiat whereas real
output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for example, the 14
countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies are
tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move,
of course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One
important caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a
percentage of GDP in local currency accounts may differ substantially
from the proportion when GDP accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as,
for example, when an observer tries to estimate the dollar level of
Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note: the numbers for GDP
and other economic data can not be chained together from successive
volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring
rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or
different sources of information, and changes in national statistical
methods and practices. For statistical series on GDP and other
economic variables, see the [1]Handbook of International Economic
Statistics available from the same sources as The World Factbook.

GDP--composition by sector: This entry gives the percentage
contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP.

GDP--per capita: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity
basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

GDP--real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis
adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and
longitude for finding purposes of the approximate geographic center of
the country and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third
Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other
sources.

Geographic names: This information is presented in Appendix H:
Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names which indicates where various
geographic names--including the location of all US Foreign Service
Posts, alternate names of countries, former names, and political or
geographical portions of larger entities--can be found in The World
Factbook. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by
the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names are included
in parentheses, while additional information is included in brackets.

Geography: This category includes the entries dealing with the natural
environment and the effects of human activity.

Geography--note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

GNP: Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned
by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from
domestic production. The Factbook uses GDP rather than GNP to measure
national production.

Government: This category includes the entries dealing with the system
for the adoption and administration of public policy.

Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government (e.g.,
republic, constitutional monarchy, federal republic, parliamentary
democracy, military dictatorship).

Government--note: This entry includes miscellaneous government
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Gross domestic product: see GDP

Gross national product: see GNP

Gross world product: see GWP

GWP: This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value
of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.

Heliports: This entry gives the total number of helicopter takeoff and
landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).

Highways: This entry includes the total length of the highway system
as well as the length of the paved and unpaved components.

Historical perspective: This entry contains a brief summary of the
background information necessary to understand the current situation
in a country. The entry appears for only a few countries at the
present time, but will be added to all countries in the future.

Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of
illicit drugs--narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives),
hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs
legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally
produced and sold outside of medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana
(pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC,
Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa,
which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa,
and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and
include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal,
phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone
(Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl,
Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental,
emotional, or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that
results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an
individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid,
microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine
variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog),
phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin,
psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant
(Cannabis sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in
Southwest Asia.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer
to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural
narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine
(MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with
codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include
heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan),
methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of
the opium poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature dried
opium poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis
that is chewed or drunk as tea.

Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a
pharmaceutical depressant.

Imports: This entry includes three subfields. Total value is the total
US dollar amount of imports on a c.i.f. or f.o.b. basis. Commodities
is a rank ordering of imported products starting with the most
important and sometimes includes the percent of dollar value. Partners
is a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most
important and sometimes includes the percent of dollar value.

Independence: This entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved
and from what nation.

Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual
percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing,
mining, and construction).

Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting
with the largest by value of annual output.

Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of
infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births
occurring in the same year. The infant mortality rate is often used an
indicator of the level of health in a country.

Inflation rate-consumer price index: This entry furnishes the annual
percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's
consumer prices.

International disputes: see Disputes--international

International organization participation: This entry lists in
alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations
in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other
way.

International organizations: This information is presented in Appendix
C: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name,
abbreviation, address, telephone, FAX, date established, aim, and
members by category.

Introduction: This category includes two entries--Current issues and
Historical perspective.

Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of
land area that is artificially supplied with water.

Judicial branch: This entry contains the name(s) of the highest
court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.

Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure and a
rank ordering of component parts by occupation.

Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land
boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous
border countries.

Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area
for five different types of land use. Arable land--land cultivated for
crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and
rice. Permanent crops--land cultivated for crops that are not
replanted after each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber.
Permanent pastures--land permanently used for herbaceous forage crops.
Forests and woodland--land under dense or open stands of trees.
Other--any land type not specifically mentioned above like urban
areas, roads, desert, etc.

Languages: This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population speaking that language.

Legal system: This entry contains a brief description of the legal
system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of
International Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.

Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure
(unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and
term of office. Elections includes the nature of election process or
accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next
election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number
of seats held by each party in the last election.

Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of
years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if
mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry
includes total population as well as the male and female components.
Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life
in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be
thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human
capital, and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial
measures.

Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census
Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There
are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless
otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common
definition--the ability to read and write at a specified age.
Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the
ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.
Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational
results, is probably the most easily available and valid for
international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in
general, can impede the economic development of a country in the
current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

Location: This entry identifies the country's regional location,
neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.

Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference
map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic
coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.

Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims: contiguous
zone, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, exclusive fishing
zone, extended fishing zone, none (usually for a landlocked country),
other (unique maritime claims like Libya's Gulf of Sidra Closing Line
or North Korea's Military Boundary Line), and territorial sea. The
proximity of neighboring states may prevent some national claims from
being extended the full distance.

Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged
in the carriage of goods; all commercial vessels (as opposed to all
nonmilitary ships) which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil
rigs, etc.; or a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or
register. This entry contains information in two subfields--total and
ships by type. Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or
over), total DWT for all ships, and total GRT for all ships. Ships by
type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo
ships, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers,
container ships, intermodal ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock
carriers, multifunction large-load carriers, oil tankers, passenger
ships, passenger-cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo
ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships,
specialized tankers, tanker tug-barges, and vehicle carriers.

Captive register is a register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships
owned in the parent country; also referred to as an offshore register,
the offshore equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive
register will fly the same flag as the parent country, or a local
variant of it, but will be subject to the maritime laws and taxation
rules of the offshore territory. Although the nature of a captive
register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in the parent
country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be owned
abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience
register, except that it is not the register of an independent state.

Flag of convenience register is a national register offering
registration to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major
flags of convenience (FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue
of low fees, low or nonexistent taxation of profits, and liberal
manning requirements. True FOC registers are characterized by having
relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in the flag
state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority
of the merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an
open register.

Flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which holds
legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or
abroad. Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship
is crewed and taxed and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on
the register.

Internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset of a
national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national
flag and have that nationality but are subject to a separate set of
maritime rules from those on the main national register. These
differences usually include lower taxation of profits, use of foreign
nationals as crew members, and, usually, ownership outside the flag
state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are
the most notable examples of an internal register. Both have been
instrumental in stemming flight from the national flag to flags of
convenience and in attracting foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and
Danish flags.

Merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of
freight; commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately
restricted to commercial vessels only.

Register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed
with the maritime authorities of a country; also, the compendium of
such individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides
it with a nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country
in which registered (the flag state) regardless of the nationality of
the ship's ultimate owner.

Military: This category includes the entries dealing with a country's
military structure, manpower, and expenditures.

Military branches: This entry lists the names of the ground, naval,
air, marine, and other defense or military-type forces.

Military expenditures--dollar figure: This entry gives current
military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by
multiplying the estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the
gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
The figure should be treated with caution because of different price
patterns and accounting methods among nations.

Military expenditures--percent of GDP: This entry gives current
military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic
product (GDP).

Military manpower--availability: This entry gives the total numbers of
males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit
to serve.

Military manpower--fit for military service: This entry gives the
number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This
is a more refined measure of potential military manpower availability
which tries to correct for the health situation in the country and
reduces the maximum potential number to a more realistic estimate of
the actual number fit to serve.

Military manpower--military age: This entry gives the minimum age at
which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject
to conscription.

Military manpower--reaching military age annually: This entry gives
the number of draft-age males and females entering the military
manpower pool in any given year and is a measure of the availability
of draft-age young adults.

Military--note: This entry includes miscellaneous military information
of significance not included elsewhere.

Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.

National capital: This entry gives the location of the seat of
government.

National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of
celebration--usually independence day.

Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for
citizens--noun and adjective.

Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters.

Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum,
hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.

Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference
between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during
the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of
persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g.,
3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the
country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The
net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the
overall level of population change. High levels of migration can cause
problems such as increasing unemployment and potential ethnic strife
(if people are coming in) or reducing the labor force, perhaps in
certain key sectors (if people are leaving).

People: This category includes the entries dealing with the
characteristics of the people and their society.

People--note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for
transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum
products.

Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of
political organizations and their leaders.

Political pressure groups and leaders: This entry includes a listing
of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing
for legislative election.

Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the
Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics
registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past,
and on assumptions about future trends. Starting with the 1993
Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African)
have taken into account the effects of the growing incidence of AIDS
infections; in 1997 these countries were Botswana, Brazil, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the
Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi,
Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Zaire which
is now known as Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, and
Zimbabwe. The total population presents one overall measure of the
potential impact of the country on the world and within its region.

Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over
deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The
rate may be positive or negative. Also known as growth rate or average
annual rate of growth. The growth rate is a factor in determining how
rapidly a country responds to the changing needs of its people in
terms of infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads),
resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population
growth can also be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Ports and harbors: This entry lists a few ports and harbors selected
on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is determined
by evaluating a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods
handled, gross tonnage, facilities, military significance).

Radio broadcast stations: This entry includes the total number of AM,
FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.

Radios: This entry gives the total number of radio receivers.

Railways: This entry includes the total length of the railway network
and component parts by gauge: broad, dual, narrow, standard, and
other.

Reference maps: This section includes world, regional, and special or
current interest maps.

Religions: This entry includes a rank ordering of religions starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total
population.

Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female in
five age groups-at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and
over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently
emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some
countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian
countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide
due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage
patterns and fertility patterns and could cause unrest among young
adult males who are unable to find partners. The sex ratio at birth
for the World is 1.06 (1997 est.).

Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the
right to vote is universal or restricted.

Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers in the Factbook consist of
the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required)
in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not
presented is the international access code which varies from country
to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call
placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx where
011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls
(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),
[34] is the country code for Spain,
(1) is the city code for Madrid,
577 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another
country to the US would be as follows:

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another
country to the US would be as follows:

[1] is the country code for the US,
(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,
939 is the local exchange, and
xxxx is the local telephone number.

Telephone system: This entry includes a brief characterization of the
system with details on the domestic and international components. The
following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Arabsat-Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia)

Autodin--Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense)

CB--citizen's band mobile radio communications

cellular telephone system--the telephones in this system are radio

transceivers, each instrument having its own private radio frequency
with sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its
area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a regular
telephone exchange

Central American Microwave System--a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with
each other

coaxial cable--a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a
cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can
be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large
number of carrier frequencies

DSN--Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or
Autovon); basic general--purpose, switched voice network of the
Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense)

Eutelsat--European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris)

fiber-optic cable--a multichannel communications cable using a thread
of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal
(voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light

HF--high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz
range

Inmarsat-International Mobile Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial and
distress and safety applications, at sea, in the air, and on land

Intelsat--International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC)

Intersputnik--International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East
European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with
earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia

landline--communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on
poles or buried in the ground

Marecs--Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency

Marisat--satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the
Inmarsat system

Medarabtel--the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU), providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay,
linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi
Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen (initially started
in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and
known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications
Network)

NMT--Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that
was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities
of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and
Sweden)

Orbita--a Russian television service; also the trade name of a
packet--switched digital telephone network

radiotelephone communications--the two--way transmission and reception
of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone
handsets

satellite communication system--a communication system consisting of
two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provides
long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system
usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if
the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system

satellite earth station--a communications facility with a microwave
radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and
transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites

satellite link--a radio connection between a satellite and an earth
station permitting communication between them, either one--way (down
link from satellite to earth station--television receive--only
transmission) or two-way (telephone channels)

SHF--super--high--frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range

SHF--super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range

Solidaridad-geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere

Statsionar--Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications

submarine cable--a cable designed for service under water

TAT--Trans--Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high--capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America

telefax--facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public
switched telephone network or the international Datel network

telegraph--a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission

telex--a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by
wire through automatic exchanges

tropospheric scatter--a form of microwave radio transmission in which
the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the
incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional
antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals;
reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up
to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of
this system for very long distances

trunk network--a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines

UHF--ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to
3,000-MHz range

VHF--very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz
range

Telephones: This entry gives the total number of subscribers.

Television broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number of
separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.

Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television sets.

Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook
database, some collective generic terms have to be used. "Country
name" and "National capital", for example are used collectively to
include nations, dependent areas, uninhabited islands, areas of
special sovereignty, etc. The term "Military" is also used as an
umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense
activities.

Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the topography.

Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end
of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given
fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate is a more direct
measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it
refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for
population growth in the country. High rates will also place some
limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large numbers
of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit
the capacity of the families to educate their children.

Transnational Issues: This category includes only two entries at the
present time. Disputes--international and Illicit drugs--deal with
current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing with the
movement of people or material.

Transportation--note: This entry includes miscellaneous transportation
information of significance not included elsewhere.

Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force
that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

United Nations System: This information is presented in Appendix B:
United Nations System which is a chart, table, or text (depending on
the version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in
detail.

Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual names of
navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and measures: This information is presented in Appendix E:
Weights and Measures which includes mathematical notations
(mathematical powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix;
symbol; length, weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard
conversion factors.

Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting
period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is
an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.
FY93/94 refers to the fiscal year that began in calendar year 1993 and
ended in calendar year 1994.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence
Community estimates. The [2]Handbook of International Economic
Statistics, published annually in September by the Central
Intelligence Agency, contains detailed economic information for the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
countries, the successor nations to the Soviet Union, and selected
other countries. The Handbook can be obtained wherever the Factbook is
available.

References

1. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/hies97/index.htm
2. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/hies97/index.htm

______________________________________________________________________

GUIDE TO COUNTRY PROFILES (CATEGORIES, FIELDS AND SUBFIELDS)

Introduction

Current issues
Historical perspective

Geography

Location
Geographic coordinates
Map references
Area
total
    land
    water
    
Area--comparative
Land boundaries
total
    border countries
    
Coastline
Maritime claims
contiguous zone
    continental shelf
    exclusive economic zone
    exclusive fishing zone
    extended fishing zone
    other
    territorial sea
    
Climate
Terrain
Elevation extremes
lowest point
    highest point
    
Natural resources
Land use
arable land
    permanent crops
    permanent pastures
    forests and woodland
    other
    
Irrigated land
Natural hazards
Environment--current issues
Environment--international agreements
party to
    signed, but not ratified
    
Geography--note

People

Population
Age structure
0-14 years
    15-64 years
    65 years and over
    
Population growth rate
Birth rate
Death rate
Net migration rate
Sex ratio
at birthunder
    15 years
    15-64 years
    65 years and over
    total population
    
Infant mortality rate
Life expectancy at birth
total population
    male
    female
    
Total fertility rate
Nationality
noun
    adjective
    
Ethnic groups
Religions
Languages
Literacy
definition
    total population
    male
    female
    
Government

Country name
conventional long form
    conventional short form
    local long form
    local short form
    former
    
Data code
Dependency status
Government type
National capital
Administrative divisions
Dependent areas
Independence
National holiday
Constitution
Legal system
Suffrage
Executive branch
chief of state
    head of government
    cabinet
    elections
    election results
    
Legislative branch
elections
    election results
    
Judicial branch
Political parties and leaders
Political pressure groups and leaders
International organization participation
Diplomatic representation in the US
chief of mission
    chancery
    telephone
    FAX
    consulate(s) general
    consulate(s)
    honorary consulate(s)
    honorary consulate(s) general
    
Diplomatic representation from the US
chief of mission
    embassy
    branch office
    mailing address
    telephone
    FAX
    consulate(s) general
    consulate(s)
    
Flag description
Government--note

Economy

Economy--overview
GDP
GDP--real growth
GDP--per capita
GDP--composition by sector
agriculture
    industry
    services
    
Inflation rate--consumer price index
Labor force
total
    by occupation
    
Unemployment rate
Budget
revenues
    expenditures
    
Industries
Industrial production growth rate
Electricity--capacity
Electricity--production
Electricity--consumption per capita
Agriculture--products
Exports
total value
    commodities
    partners
    
Imports
total value
    commodities
    partners
    
Debt--external
Economic aid
donor
    recipient
    
Currency
Exchange rates
Fiscal year

Communications

Telephones
Telephone system
domestic
    international
    
Radio broadcast stations
Radios
Television broadcast stations
Televisions
Communications--note

Transportation

Railways
total
    broad gauge
    dual gauge
    narrow gauge
    other gauges
    standard gauge
    
Highways
total
    paved
    unpaved
    
Waterways
Pipelines
Ports and harbors
Merchant marine
total
    ships by type
    
Airports
Airports--with paved runways
total
    over 3,047m
    2,438 to 3,047m
    1,524 to 2,437m
    914 to 1,523m
    under 914m
    
Airports--with unpaved runways
total
    over 3,047m
    2,438 to 3,047m
    1,524 to 2,437m
    914 to 1,523m
    under 914m
    
Heliports
Transportation--note

Military

Military branches
Military manpower--military age
Military manpower--availability
males age 15-49
    females age 15-49
    
Military manpower--fit for military service
males
    females
    
Military manpower--reaching military age annually
males
    females
    
Military expenditures--dollar figure
Military expenditures--percent of GDP
Military--note

Transnational Issues

Disputes--international
Illicit drugs

______________________________________________________________________


AFGHANISTAN

@Afghanistan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 647,500 sq km
land: 647,500 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,529 km
border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious
stones

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 3%
other: 39% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
flooding

Environment - current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing;
deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for
fuel and building materials); desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: landlocked

@Afghanistan:People

Population: 23,738,085 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 5,201,585; female 5,003,503)
15-64 years: 54% (male 6,680,687; female 6,208,463)
65 years and over : 3% (male 341,301; female 302,546) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.48% (1997 est.)
note: this rate reflects the continued return of refugees

Birth rate: 42.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.78 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 19.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.13 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 146.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 46.34 years
male: 46.89 years
female: 45.76 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.07 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Afghan(s)
adjective: Afghan

Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%, minor
ethnic groups (Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
(primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 31.5%
male : 47.2%
female: 15% (1995 est.)

@Afghanistan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
conventional short form: Afghanistan
local long form : Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
local short form: Afghanestan
former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Government type: transitional government

National capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular - velayat);
Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah, Faryab, Ghazni,
Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar, Kapisa, Konar,
Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan, Paktia, Paktika,
Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
note : there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and
Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign
affairs)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April; Remembrance
Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day, 19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but all factions
tacitly agree they will follow Islamic law (Shari'a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch: on 27 September 1996, the ruling members of the
Afghan Government were displaced by members of the Islamic Taliban
movement; the Islamic State of Afghanistan has no functioning
government at this time, and the country remains divided among
fighting factions
note: the Taliban have declared themselves the legitimate government
of Afghanistan; the UN has deferred a decision on credentials and the
Organization of the Islamic Conference has left the Afghan seat vacant
until the question of legitimacy can be resolved through negotiations
among the warring factions; the country is essentially divided along
ethnic lines; the Taliban controls the capital of Kabul and
approximately two-thirds of the country including the predominately
ethnic Pashtun areas in southern Afghanistan; opposing factions have
their stonghold in the ethnically diverse north - General DOSTAM's
National Islamic Movement controls several northcentral provinces and
Commander MASOOD controls the ethnic Tajik majority areas of the
northeast

Legislative branch: non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: non-functioning as of March 1995, although there are
local Shari'a (Islamic law) courts throughout the country

Political parties and leaders: Taliban (Religious Students Movement),
Mohammad OMAR; Supreme Defense Council of Afghanistan [comprised of
Jumbesh-i-Melli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul Rashid
DOSTAM; Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI and
Ahmad Shah MASOOD; and Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity
Party), Abdul Karim KHALILI]; other smaller parties are Hizbi
Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi
Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS faction; Ittihad-i-Islami
Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for the Liberation of
Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF; Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic
Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad Nabi MOHAMMADI;
Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan National Liberation
Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI; Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic
Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic
Unity Party), Mohammad Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic
Movement), Mohammed Asif MOHSENI

Political pressure groups and leaders: tribal elders represent
traditional Pashtun leadership; Afghan refugees in Pakistan,
Australia, US, and elsewhere have organized politically; Peshawar,
Pakistan-based groups such as the Coordination Council for National
Unity and Understanding in Afghanistan (CUNUA), Ishaq GAILANI; Writers
Union of Free Afghanistan (WUFA), A. Rasul AMIN; Mellat (Social
Democratic Party), leader NA

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Yar Mohammed
MOHABBAT
chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
consulate(s) general : New York
consulate(s): Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US embassy in Kabul has
been closed since January 1989 due to security concerns

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
scimitars

Economy

Economy - overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
country, highly dependent on farming and livestock raising (sheep and
goats). Economic considerations have played second fiddle to political
and military upheavals during more than 17 years of war, including the
nearly 10-year Soviet military occupation (which ended 15 February
1989). During the war one-third of the population fled the country,
with Pakistan and Iran sheltering a combined peak of more than 6
million refugees. Now, only 750,000 registered Afghan refugees remain
in Pakistan and about 1.2 million in Iran. Another 1 million have
probably moved into and around urban areas within Afghanistan. Gross
domestic product has fallen substantially over the past 17 years
because of the loss of labor and capital and the disruption of trade
and transport. Millions of people continue to suffer from insufficient
food, clothing, housing, and medical care. Inflation remains a serious
problem throughout the country, with one estimate putting the rate at
240% in Kabul in 1996. Numerical data are likely to be either
unavailable or unreliable.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 15%
services: 29%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 240% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.1 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry 10.2%,
construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7% (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
coal, copper

Electricity - capacity: 371,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 670 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 35 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool,
mutton

Exports:
total value: $80 million (1996 est.)
commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
partners : FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK, Belgium,
Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports:
total value : $150 million (1996 est.)
commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
partners: FSU, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India, South Korea,
Germany

Debt - external: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA; about $56 million in UN aid plus additional bilateral
aid and aid in kind (1996)
note: US provided $450 million in bilateral assistance (1985-93); US
continues to contribute to multilateral assistance through the UN
programs of food aid, immunization, land mine removal, and a wide
range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 17,000 (December 1996), 7,000
(January 1995), 1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991);
note - these rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than
the official exchange rate, which is a fixed rate of 50.600 afghanis
to the dollar

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March

@Afghanistan:Communications

Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : very limited telephone and telegraph service
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: 1.8 million (1996 est.); note - about 60% of families own a
radio

Television broadcast stations: NA
note: one television station run by Jumbesh faction provides
intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Afghanistan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 24.6 km
broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to Kheyrabad
transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
total: 21,000 km
paved: 2,793 km
unpaved: 18,207 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up to
about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and Turkmenistan
to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports and harbors: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports: 33 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: NA; note - the military does not exist on a
national basis; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air Defense
Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police Force
(Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are factionalized
among the various groups

Military manpower - military age: 22 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 5,813,298 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 3,118,004 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 231,250 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some support from RABBANI and MASOOD to
anti-government Islamic fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; support to
Islamic militants worldwide by some factions; question over which
group should hold Afghanistan's seat at the UN

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest illicit opium producer after
Burma (1,230 metric tons in 1996 - down 2% from 1995) and a major
source of hashish
______________________________________________________________________

ALBANIA

@Albania:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian
Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 28,750 sq km
land: 27,400 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry
summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point : Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
timber, nickel

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 3,410 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along
southwestern coast

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

@Albania:People

Population: 3,299,757 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 575,087; female 534,618)
15-64 years: 60% (male 927,791; female 1,068,922)
65 years and over: 6% (male 80,135; female 113,204) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.9% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.96 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.54 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 68.28 years
male: 65.24 years
female: 71.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs, Gypsies,
Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1%
(official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy:
definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 72%
male: 80%
female: 63% (1955 est.)

@Albania:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje,
Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet,
Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane, Tropoje,
Vlore
note: some new administrative units may have been created

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9 April
1992)
head of government: Prime Minister of the interim National
Reconciliation Government Bashkim FINO (since 12 March 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the People's Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held NA 1992 (next to be held NA March 1997);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Sali BERISHA elected president; percent of People's
Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Kuvendi Popullor
(140 seats; most members are elected by direct popular vote and some
by proportional vote for four-year terms)
elections: last held 26 May 1996 (next tentatively scheduled for 29
June 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - DP
122, PS 10, RP 3, UHP 3, Balli Kombetar 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
elected by the People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: Albanian Socialist Party or PS
(formerly the Albania Workers Party) [Fatos NANO, chairman];
Democratic Party or PD [Tritan SHEHU]; Albanian Republican Party or PR
[Sabri GODO]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Skender GJINUSHI];
Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Neritan CEKA, chairman]; Unity for
Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vasil MELO, chairman]; Movement for
Democracy Party or LDP [ruled by committee of Genc RULI, Alfred
SERREQI, Dashimir SHEHI, Maksim KONOMI]; Balli Kombetar [Hysen SELFO]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD,
ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lublin DILJA
chancery: Suite 1000, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Marisa R. LINO (15 July 1996)
embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirane
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: An extremely poor country by European standards,
Albania is making the difficult transition to a more open-market
economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe depression
accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally planned system in
1990 and 1991. However, a weakening of government resolve to maintain
stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to
renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which
exceeded 12%. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997
- which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's
adult population - triggered unrest in much of the south in early
1997. The economy continues to be buoyed by remittances of some 20% of
the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece and Italy. These
remittances supplement GDP and help offset the large foreign trade
deficit. Most agricultural land was privatized in 1992, substantially
improving peasant incomes. Overall economic performance is likely to
be substantially worse in 1997; inflation will easily top 50% and GDP
may drop by 5% or more.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,290 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 21%
services: 23% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 17.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant workers
and 261,000 domestically unemployed)
by occupation : agriculture (nearly all private) 49.5%, private sector
22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector 28.3% (including state-owned industry
7.8%); note - includes only those domestically employed

Unemployment rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $624 million
expenditures : $996 million, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.533 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.86 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,221 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wide range of temperate-zone crops and
livestock

Exports:
total value: $205 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
partners: Italy, US, Greece, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

Imports:
total value: $680 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : machinery, consumer goods, grains
partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia

Debt - external: $500 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 150.00 (May 1997), 104.50 (1996),
92.70 (1995), 94.62 (1994), 102.06 (1993), 75.03 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Albania:Communications

Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system:
domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used it
to build fences
international : inadequate; international traffic carried by microwave
radio relay from the Tirane exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)

@Albania:Transportation

Railways:
total : 670 km
standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 15,500 km
paved: 4,650 km
unpaved: 10,850 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid,
and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas 64
km (1991)

Ports and harbors: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
total: 8 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,201 GRT/57,938
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 11 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 738,082 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 600,403 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 31,823 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $42 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% to 2.0% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the Albanian Government supports protection
of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders; Albanian
majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian Republic; Albanians
in Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to
public-sector jobs and representation in government

Illicit drugs: increasingly active transshipment point for Southwest
Asian opiates, hashish, and cannabis transiting the Balkan route and
cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe; limited opium
and cannabis production; ethnic Albanian narcotrafficking
organizations active in Central and Eastern Europe
______________________________________________________________________

ALGERIA

@Algeria:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 6,343 km
border countries : Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau;
sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
discontinuous coastal plain

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 13%
forests and woodland: 2%
other : 82% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,550 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mud
slides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other
poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage,
petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading
to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)

@Algeria:People

Population: 29,830,370 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 39% (male 5,923,391; female 5,712,088)
15-64 years: 57% (male 8,619,009; female 8,450,774)
65 years and over: 4% (male 525,556; female 599,552) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 28.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.76 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.62 years
male : 67.5 years
female: 69.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.48 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.6%
male: 73.9%
female : 49% (1995 est.)

@Algeria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Government type: republic

National capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya);
Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar,
Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef,
Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma,
Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem,
M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif,
Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret,
Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3
November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996; note -
referendum approving the revisions of 28 November 1996 was signed into
law 7 December 1996

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31
January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995)
head of government : Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December
1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); prime
minister appointed by the president
election results : Liamine ZEROUAL elected president; percent of vote
- Liamine ZEROUAL 61.3%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
People's Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (380 seats;
members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; suspended
since 1992) and the Council of Nations (144 seats; one-third of the
members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect
vote; members serve six-year terms; created as a result of the
constitutional revision of November 1996)
elections : National People's Assembly - first-round held 26 December
1991; second round canceled by the military after President BENDJEDID
resigned 11 January 1992, effectively suspending the assembly (next
election scheduled for 5 June 1997)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - the
fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats contested in the first
round of the 1991 elections

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS, outlawed
April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR (self-exile
in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem BENHAMOUDA,
secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine Ait AHMED,
secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Movement of a Peaceful
Society (Hamas), Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and
Democracy (RCD), Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party
(PRA), Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman; Nahda Movement (Al Nahda),
Abdallah DJABALLAH, president; Democratic National Rally (RND),
Abdelkader BENSALAH, chairman; Movement for Democracy in Algeria
(MDA), Ahmed Ben BELLA
note : the government established a multiparty system in September
1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed; a new
party law was enacted in March 1997

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF,
AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
(observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ramtane LAMAMRA
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX : [1] (202) 667-2174

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
embassy : 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-12-55
FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the
state religion)

Economy

Economy - overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of
GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth-largest
reserves of natural gas in the world and is the second largest gas
exporter; and it ranks fourteenth for oil reserves. Algiers' efforts
to reform one of the most centrally planned economies in the Arab
world began after the 1986 collapse of world oil prices plunged the
country into a severe recession. In 1989, the government launched a
comprehensive, IMF-supported program to achieve economic stabilization
and to introduce market mechanisms into the economy. Despite
substantial progress toward economic adjustment, in 1992 the reform
drive stalled as Algiers became embroiled in political turmoil. In
September 1993, a new government was formed, and one priority was the
resumption and acceleration of the structural adjustment process.
Buffeted by the slump in world oil prices and burdened with a heavy
foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with
the IMF in April 1994. Following a Paris Club debt rescheduling in
1995, a robust harvest, and elevated oil prices, the economy
experienced a strong recovery and key economic improvements. Recent
and planned investments in developing hydrocarbon resources are likely
to increase growth and export earnings.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $115.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 50%
services: 38% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 19.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 7.8 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 28% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $14.3 billion
expenditures: $17.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 6.01 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 18.7 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 583 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus,
fruits; sheep, cattle

Exports:
total value: $11 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
partners: Italy 18.8%, US 14.8%, France 11.8%, Spain 8%, Germany 7.9%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods, food and beverages, consumer goods
partners: France 29%, Spain 10.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 8%, Germany 5.6%
(1995 est.)

Debt - external: $32 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $420 million (1996)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 57.136 (January 1997),
54.749 (1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Algeria:Communications

Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: excellent service in north but sparse in south; domestic
satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth
stations are planned)
international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and 1
Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)

@Algeria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,772 km
standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
double track)
narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways:
total: 102,424 km
paved : 70,570 km (including 6,080 km of expressways)
unpaved: 31,854 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural gas
2,948 km

Ports and harbors: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
total : 78 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 925,261 GRT/1,094,281
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
tanker 11, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 119 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 66
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m : 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 53
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial
Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 7,666,961 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,700,502 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 337,630 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.3 billion (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.7% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: part of southeastern region claimed by
Libya; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993
______________________________________________________________________

AMERICAN SAMOA

(territory of the US)

@American Samoa:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 199 sq km
land: 199 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual
rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to April, dry
season from May to October; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited coastal
plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland : 70%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources;
the water division of the government has spent substantial funds in
the past few years to improve water catchments and pipelines

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough seas
and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds; strategic
location in the South Pacific Ocean

@American Samoa:People

Population: 61,819 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.23 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.91 years
male: 71.03 years
female: 74.85 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.16 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: American Samoan(s)
adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic groups: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan 4%, other
5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other Polynesian
languages), English
note: most people are bilingual

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 97% (1980 est.)

@American Samoa:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
conventional short form: American Samoa
abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Dependency status: unincorporated and unorganized territory of the US;
administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of Territorial
and International Affairs

Government type: NA

National capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President of the US William Jefferson CLINTON (since
20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since 20 January
1993)
head of government: Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1997)
and Lieutenant Governor Togiola Tulafono (since 3 January 1997)
cabinet: NA
elections: governor and lieutenant governor elected on the same ticket
by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 November
1996 (next to be held 7 November 2000)
election results: Tauese P. SUNIA elected governor of American Samoa;
percent of vote - Tauese P. SUNIA (Democrat) 51%, Peter REID
(Independent) 49%

Legislative branch: bicameral Fono or Legislative Assembly consists of
the House of Representatives (21 seats - 20 of which are elected by
popular vote and 1 is an appointed, nonvoting delegate from Swains
Island; members serve two-year terms) and the Senate (18 seats;
members are elected from local chiefs who serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 5 November 1996 (next
to be held NA November 1998); Senate - last held 3 November 1996 (next
to be held 7 November 2000)
election results : House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - NA; Senate - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - NA
note: American Samoa elects one delegate to the US House of
Representatives; elections last held 5 November 1996 (next to be held
NA November 1998); results - Eni R. F. H. FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as
delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices are
appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), Interpol
(subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of the US)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of the US)

Flag description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is
based on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and
white American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US,
with which American Samoa conducts the great bulk of its foreign
trade. Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the
private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna
canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers.
Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist
industry. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to
American Samoa's economic well-being. According to one observer,
attempts by the government to develop a larger and broader economy are
restrained by Samoa's remote location, its limited transportation, and
its devastating hurricanes.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,600 (1991 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA %

Labor force:
total: 14,400 (1990)
by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million in
grant revenue)
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
vessels), handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 33,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,743 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro,
breadfruit, yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports:
total value: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities: canned tuna 93%
partners : US 99.6%

Imports:
total value: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum products
7%, machinery and parts 6%
partners : US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note : important financial support from the US

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September

@American Samoa:Communications

Telephones: 9,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: good telex, telegraph, facsimile and cellular phone
services; domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 8,000 (1993 est.)

@American Samoa:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 350 km
paved: 150 km
unpaved: 200 km

Ports and harbors: Aunu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu,
Pago Pago, Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANDORRA

@Andorra:Geography

Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 450 sq km
land: 450 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
total: 125 km
border countries : France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m
highest point : Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 56%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 20% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain
meadows contributes to soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked

@Andorra:People

Population: 64,000 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 14% (male 4,788; female 4,452)
15-64 years : 74% (male 25,291; female 21,807)
65 years and over: 12% (male 3,903; female 3,759) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.67 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.77 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 83.45 years
male : 80.53 years
female: 86.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.21 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA

@Andorra:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form : Andorra

Data code: AN

Government type: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that
retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes are
the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are
represented locally by officials called veguers

National capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes,
Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) and
Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since 31
January 1971); note - each coprince is represented by a veguer
(current names NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
(since 21 December 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council designated by the executive council
president
elections: executive council president elected by the General Council
and formally appointed by the coprinces; election last held 16
February 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Marc FORNE Molne elected executive council
president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council of the Valleys or
Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct
popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to
represent each of the 7 parishes; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 16 February 1997 (next to be held February 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - UL 57%, AND 21%, IDN 7%,
ND 7%, other 8%; seats by party - UL 16, AND 6, ND 2, IDN 2, UPO 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France) two
civil judges appointed by the veguers, one appeals judge appointed by
the coprinces alternately; Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo
de Urgel (Spain); Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal des Cortes
presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the veguers,
and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group or AND [Oscar
RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS]; Liberal Union or UL [Francesc CERQUEDA];
New Democracy or ND [Jaume BARTOMEU]; Andorran National Coalition or
CNA [Antoni CERQUEDA]; National Democratic Initiative or IDN [Vincenc
MATEU]; Liberal Party of Andorra (Partit Liberal d'Andorra) or PLA
[Marc FORNE]; Unio Parroquial d'Ordino or UDO
note : there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, ICRM, IFRCS,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, WIPO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
Representative to the UN)
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227; FAX:
(343) 205-7705; note - Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes periodic
visits to Andorra

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow
band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the
flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in
the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 10
million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods
and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven" status,
also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production
is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food has to be
imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising.
Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture.
Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU
member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU
member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
revenues : $138 million
expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 35,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 140 million kWh (1992)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh; note - Andorra exports
most of its electricity to France and Spain

Agriculture - products: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat,
barley, oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports:
total value : $47 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
partners : France 49%, Spain 47%

Imports:
total value: $1 billion (1995)
commodities: consumer goods, food
partners: France, Spain, US 4.2%

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 134.77 (January 1997),
126.66 (1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Andorra:Communications

Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : modern system with microwave radio relay connections
between exchanges
international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Andorra:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved : 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: none

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANGOLA

Introduction

Current issues: Civil war has been the norm since independence from
Portugal on 11 November 1975. A cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991
until October 1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total
Independence of Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in
internationally monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout
much of the countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on
20 November 1994 and the cease-fire is generally holding, but military
tensions persist and banditry is increasing. In order to bring armed
insurgents under government control the peace accord of 20 November
1994 provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the
Angolan armed forces. Military integration began in June 1996 and a
Government of National Unity and Reconciliation was installed in April
1997. Efforts which began in May 1997 to extend government into
UNITA-occupied areas are proceeding slowly. The original 7,200-man UN
peacekeeping force began a phased drawdown in late 1996. All UN
peacekeepers are scheduled to depart by September 1997 but a small UN
military observer force will probably remain in Angola through 1998.

@Angola:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,246,700 sq km
land : 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km of which
220 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda province, Republic of
the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 20 nm

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool,
dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper,
feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 23%
forests and woodland: 43%
other : 32% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
the plateau

Environment - current issues: the overuse of pastures and subsequent
soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification;
deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both
international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel,
resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water
pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of
potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification

Geography - note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Congo
(Kinshasa)

@Angola:People

Population: 10,548,847 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,393,009; female 2,327,186)
15-64 years: 52% (male 2,793,038; female 2,753,624)
65 years and over: 3% (male 131,720; female 150,270) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.06% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 44.11 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.24 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population : 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 135.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 47.32 years
male: 45.12 years
female: 49.64 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.27 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico
(mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15%
(est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male : 56%
female: 28% (1990 est.)

@Angola:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Government type: transitional government, nominally a multiparty
democracy with a strong presidential system

National capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law;
recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use
of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September
1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Fernando Jose de Franca Vieira Dias
VAN DUNEM (since 8 June 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: President DOS SANTOS originally elected without opposition
under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first
multiparty elections in 28-29 September 1992, the last elections to be
held, (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
and answerable to the Assembly
election results: DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the total vote, making
a run-off election necessary between him and second-place Jonas
SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the
Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) disputed the results of the first
election; the civil war was resumed

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia
Nacional (223 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results : percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%,
others 12%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the
Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation of
Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], is the ruling party and has
been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola or UNITA [Jonas SAVIMBI], is the largest opposition party and
engaged in years of armed resistance to the government
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections
but won few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Liberation of the
Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC
(observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer),
OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
chancery: 1050 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 760, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX : [1] (202) 785-1258

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG
embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Department of
State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 (pouch)
telephone : [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within
half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and
sickle)

Economy

Economy - overview: Angola is an economy in disarray. Despite its
abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's
lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
80%-90% of the population but accounts for about 12% of GDP. Oil
production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy,
contributing about 50% to GDP. Notwithstanding the signing of a peace
accord in November 1994, sporadic violence continues, millions of land
mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their
fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be
imported. To take advantage of its rich resources - notably gold,
diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, arable land, and
large oil deposits - Angola will need to observe the cease-fire,
implement the peace agreement, and reform government policies. Despite
the high inflation and political difficulties, total output grew an
estimated 9% in 1996, largely due to increased oil production.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12%
industry: 56%
services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1,700% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.783 million economically active
by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: extensive unemployment and underemployment
affecting more than half the population (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish
processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar;
textiles;

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 620,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.82 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 171 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn,
cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock;
forest products; fish

Exports:
total value: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas,
coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
partners: US 70%, EU

Imports:
total value : $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles and clothing;
substantial military supplies
partners : Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

Debt - external: $12.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $451 million (1994)

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 201,994 (November 1996),
900,000 (25 April 1995), 600,000 (10 January 1995), 90,000 (1 June
1994), 7,000 (16 December 1993), 3.884 (July 1993), 550 (April 1992)
note: black market rates - new Kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 1,900,000 (6
April 1995), 180,000 (1 June 1994), 50,000 (16 December 1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Angola:Communications

Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government and
business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)

@Angola:Transportation

Railways:
total : 2,952 km limited trackage in use because of land mines still
in place from the civil war) (1997 est.)
narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total: 72,626 km
paved: 18,157 km
unpaved: 54,469 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports and harbors: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe,
Porto Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
total : 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 55,255 GRT/86,886 DWT
ships by type: cargo 10, oil tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 144 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 67
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m : 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 40 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 77
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 48 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National
Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,412,445 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,213,988 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 102,712 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.1 billion (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 31% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for cocaine
and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African states
______________________________________________________________________

ANGUILLA

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Anguilla:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 91 sq km
land : 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 100% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
to October)

Environment - current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes
cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution
system

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Anguilla:People

Population: 10,785 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 1,527; female 1,483)
15-64 years : 65% (male 3,563; female 3,407)
65 years and over: 7% (male 351; female 454) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.36% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 21.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.02 years
male: 74.07 years
female: 80.08 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups: black

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 12 and over can read and write
total population : 95%
male: 95%
female: 95% (1984 est.)

@Anguilla:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Anguilla

Data code: AV

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended 1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952);
represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1 November 1995)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March 1994)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among the
elected members of the House of Assembly
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from among the
members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats total, 7
elected by direct popular vote; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 16 March 1994 (next to be held March 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ANA
2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
[Osbourne FLEMING]; Anguilla United Party or AUP [Hubert HUGHES];
Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP [Victor BANKS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an
interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy
water below

Economy

Economy - overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
economy depends heavily on high-class tourism, offshore banking,
lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Output growth had
averaged about 7% in recent years, mainly as a result of a boom in
tourism thanks to economic expansion in North America and the UK. The
economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in late
1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September. Agricultural
output had only just begun to recover from a drought in 1994 when Luis
hit. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing
the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive package of financial
services legislation was enacted in late 1994. In the medium term,
prospects for the economy will depend on the tourism sector and,
therefore, on continuing income growth in the industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $52 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -4.3% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,400 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,400 (1992)
by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $13.5 million (1993)
expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of
$740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep,
goats, pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports:
total value : $1.3 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: lobster and salt
partners : NA

Imports:
total value: $39.8 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt - external: $8.5 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Anguilla:Communications

Telephones: 890

Telephone system:
domestic: modern internal telephone system
international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
(Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@Anguilla:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 105 km
paved: 65 km
unpaved : 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports and harbors: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ANTARCTICA

@Antarctica:Geography

Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 14 million sq km
land: 14 million sq km (280,000 sq km ice-free, 13.72 million sq km
ice-covered) (est.)
note : second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 0 km
note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along
the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include parts
of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic Peninsula area,
and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers form ice shelves
along about half of the coastline, and floating ice shelves constitute
11% of the area of the continent

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward from
the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise along
the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of West
Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak

Environment - current issues: in 1995 it was reported that the ozone
shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet
radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica
since 1975 when measurements were first taken

Environment - international agreements:
party to: none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest
continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface at
the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent
period; mostly uninhabitable

@Antarctica:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally
staffed research stations; Summer (January) population - over 4,115
total; Argentina 207, Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256,
China NA, Ecuador NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace
12, India 60, Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ
264, Norway 23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden
10, UK 116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90); Winter
(July) population - over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia 71,
Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace 5,
India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa 12,
UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90); Year-round
stations - 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1, Chile 3,
China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2, South Korea
1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US 3, former USSR
6 (1990-91); Summer-only stations - over 38 total; Argentina 7,
Australia 3, Chile 5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2,
Norway 1, Peru 1, South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US
numerous, former USSR 5 (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the
former USSR has placed the status and future of its Antarctic
facilities in doubt; stations may be subject to closings at any time
because of ongoing economic difficulties

@Antarctica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Antarctica

Data code: AY

Government type: Antarctic Treaty Summary - The Antarctic Treaty,
signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961,
establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings -
the 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April
1993. Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative
and 16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven
nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some
claims overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other
nations that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The
US does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses
indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative
(voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original
1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia,
Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
(1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
(1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of
accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978),
Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993),
Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984), North
Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971), Slovakia
(1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992). Article 1 - area to be
used for peaceful purposes only; military activity, such as weapons
testing, is prohibited, but military personnel and equipment may be
used for scientific research or any other peaceful purpose; Article 2
- freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue;
Article 3 - free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation
with the UN and other international agencies; Article 4 - does not
recognize, dispute, or establish territorial claims and no new claims
shall be asserted while the treaty is in force; Article 5 - prohibits
nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive wastes; Article 6 -
includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees
00 minutes south; Article 7 - treaty-state observers have free access,
including aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all
stations, installations, and equipment; advance notice of all
activities and of the introduction of military personnel must be
given; Article 8 - allows for jurisdiction over observers and
scientists by their own states; Article 9 - frequent consultative
meetings take place among member nations; Article 10 - treaty states
will discourage activities by any country in Antarctica that are
contrary to the treaty; Article 11 - disputes to be settled peacefully
by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13,
14 - deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among
involved nations; Other agreements - more than 170 recommendations
adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments
include - Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and
Flora (1964); Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
(1972); Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Resources (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but
was subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits ratification;
this agreement provides for the protection of the Antarctic
environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna,
and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and
protected areas; it also prohibits all activities relating to mineral
resources except scientific research; 21 parties have ratified
Protocol as of April 1996

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute: The
taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of nonindigenous
plants and animals; entry into specially protected or scientific
areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the importation
into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation of the
Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000 in fines
and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury, Commerce,
Transportation, and Interior share enforcement responsibilities.
Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, requires
expeditions from the US to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the
Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room 5801, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20520, which reports such plans to other nations as
required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more information contact Permit
Office, Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation,
Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703) 306-1031.

Economy

Economy - overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing
off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.

@Antarctica:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Antarctica:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 42 landing facilities at different locations operated by 16
national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air facility
operated by commercial (non-governmental) tourist organization;
helicopter pads at 32 of these locations; runways at 10 locations are
gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow surface suitable for
wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways; 17 locations have
snow-surface skiways limited to use by ski-equipped planes - 1 skiway
greater than 3,000 m, 19 runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 2
runways/skiways less than 1,000 m, and 5 of unspecified or variable
length; airports generally subject to severe restrictions and
limitations resulting from extreme seasonal and geographic conditions;
airports do not meet ICAO standards; advance approval from the
respective governmental or non-governmental operating organization
required for landing (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing
of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or
equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
Antarctic Treaty Summary above); sections (some overlapping) claimed
by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand
(Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most
other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other nations
and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the right to do
so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90 degrees
west and 150 degrees west
______________________________________________________________________

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

@Antigua and Barbuda:Geography

Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 440 sq km
land: 440 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
volcanic areas

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
arable land : 18%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 11%
other: 62% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: water management - a major concern
because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered
by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall
to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Antigua and Barbuda:People

Population: 63,739 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 26% (male 8,514; female 8,221)
15-64 years: 68% (male 21,499; female 21,891)
65 years and over : 6% (male 1,571; female 2,043) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.27 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.93 years
male : 68.58 years
female: 73.4 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
schooling
total population: 89%
male: 90%
female: 88% (1960 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint
Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General James B. CARLISLE (since NA 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
1994)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the
advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
chosen by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; prime
minister appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(17-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional
representation to serve 5-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 8 March 1994 (next to
be held NA 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP
11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester
Bryant BIRD]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER], a
coalition of three opposition political parties - the United National
Democratic Party or UNDP; the Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or
ACLM; and the Progressive Labor Movement or PLM

Political pressure groups and leaders: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh
MARSHALL]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU,
NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
FAX : [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US
Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the
top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of
black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the
black band

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant
activity in the economy but the combined share in GDP of transport and
communications, trade, and public utilities has increased markedly in
recent years. Tourism's direct contribution to output in 1994 was
about 20%. In addition, increased tourist arrivals helped spur growth
in the construction and transport sectors. The dual island nation's
agricultural production is mainly directed to the domestic market; the
sector is constrained by the limited water supply and labor shortages
that reflect the pull of higher wages in tourism and construction.
Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major
products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components.
Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to
depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the
US, which accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $446 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3.5%
industry: 19.3%
services: 77.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 30,000
by occupation : commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry
7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $134 million
expenditures: $135.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - capacity: 54,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Exports:
total value: $45 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
US 0.3%

Imports:
total value: $350.8 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment,
manufactures, chemicals, oil
partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

Debt - external: $435 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Antigua and Barbuda:Communications

Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands
Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)

@Antigua and Barbuda:Transportation

Railways:
total: 77 km
narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
total: 245 km (1995 est.)
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
total: 419 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,965,180 GRT/2,637,644
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 285, chemical tanker 6, combination bulk
1, container 83, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4, refrigerated
cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 19
note : a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 13 ships, Slovenia
3, Croatia 1, Cyprus 1, and US 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal
Antigua and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.4 million (FY90/91)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (FY90/91)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: considered a long-time but relatively minor
transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and
recent transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US;
potentially more significant as a drug money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

ARCTIC OCEAN
[Map of Arctic Ocean]

@Arctic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
total: 14.056 million sq km
note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
Ocean, and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively
narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous
darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers
characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak
cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges
may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort
Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian
Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland);
the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the summer, but more
than doubles in size during the winter and extends to the encircling
land masses; the ocean floor is about 50% continental shelf (highest
percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a central basin
interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
and whales)

Natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure icing
from October to May

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include
walruses and whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to
recover from disruptions or damage

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
(northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating
research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover in
March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean; snow
cover lasts about 10 months

@Arctic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation
of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, fish, and
seals.

@Arctic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: no submarine cables

@Arctic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay
(US)

Transportation - note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
(Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways

Military

:

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral
states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute between
Norway and Russia
______________________________________________________________________

ARGENTINA

@Argentina:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 2,766,890 sq km
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water : 30,200 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
total: 9,665 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
arable land: 9%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 52%
forests and woodland: 19%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 17,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes
subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can
strike the Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding

Environment - current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood
controls and improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major cities;
water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due to
increased pesticide and fertilizer use

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: second-largest country in South America (after
Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
Drake Passage)

@Argentina:People

Population: 35,797,985 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 5,042,521; female 4,855,874)
15-64 years : 62% (male 11,133,884; female 11,155,104)
65 years and over: 10% (male 1,499,538; female 2,111,064) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.67 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.31 years
male: 70.67 years
female: 78.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.69 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine

Ethnic groups: white 85%, mestizo, Amerindian, or other nonwhite
groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing),
Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.2%
male : 96.2%
female: 96.2% (1995 est.)

@Argentina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Government type: republic

National capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos Aires;
Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito Federal*;
Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza; Misiones;
Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz; Santa Fe;
Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas del Atlantico
Sur; Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice
President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note - the president is
both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989);
Vice President Carlos RUCKAUF (since 8 July 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 14 May 1995 (next
to be held May 1999)
election results : Carlos Saul MENEM reelected president; percent of
vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate (72 seats; three members appointed by each of
the provincial legislatures, one-third of the members appointed every
three years to a 9-year term) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats;
one-half of the members elected every two years to four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA 1998);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 14 May 1995; (next to be held NA
October 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PJ 38, others 34; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - PJ 132, UCR 68, Frepaso 26, other 31

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme Court
judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party or PJ [Carlos Saul
MENEM] (Peronist umbrella political organization); Radical Civic Union
or UCR [Rodolfo TERRAGNO] (moderately left-of-center party); Union of
the Democratic Center or UCD (conservative party); Dignity and
Independence Political Party or MODIN [Aldo RICO] (right-wing party);
Front for a Country in Solidarity or Frepaso (a four party coalition)
[leader Carlos ALVAREZ]; several provincial parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Peronist-dominated labor
movement; General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning
umbrella labor organization); Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
landowners' association); business organizations; students; the Roman
Catholic Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK has returned to
Washington; replacement not yet appointed
embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
mailing address : Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
FAX : [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow
sun with a human face known as the Sun of May

Economy

Economy - overview: Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a
highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector,
and a diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, following decades of
mismanagement and statist policies, the economy in the late 1980s was
plagued with huge external debts and recurring bouts of
hyperinflation. Elected in 1989, in the depths of recession, President
MENEM has implemented a comprehensive economic restructuring program
that shows signs of putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable
growth. Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar
since April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 50
years. Argentines have responded to price stability by repatriating
capital and investing in domestic industry. Growth averaged more than
8% between 1991 and 1994, then fell to 4.6% in 1995, largely in
reaction to the Mexican peso crisis. The economy grew at 4.4% in 1996,
with the strongest growth occurring in the second half of the year.
Unemployment increased slightly - to over 17% - and Buenos Aires was
forced to renegotiate fiscal targets with the IMF. Although the
economy is expected to grow by at least 5% in 1997, unemployment and
fiscal concerns will continue to challenge the MENEM administration.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $296.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 29%
services: 64% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.1% (yearend 1996)

Labor force:
total: 14.5 million (1995 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985
est.)

Unemployment rate: 17.3% (October 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $50.3 billion
expenditures : $51.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.2
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 20.207 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 67.369 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,606 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $23.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures, fuels
partners: Brazil 26.1%, US 8.5%, Chile 7.0%, Netherlands 5.7%, Italy
3.5% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $23.7 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, transport
equipment, agricultural products
partners: Brazil 20.8%, US 20.7%, Italy 6.3%, Germany 6.2%, France
5.2% (1995)

Debt - external: $95 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 0.99950 (January 1997), 0.99966
(1996), 0.99975 (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Argentina:Communications

Telephones: 4.6 million (1990)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern system
but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive use of
microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently grounds out
during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
40 earth stations serve the trunk network
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)

@Argentina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 37,910 km
broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways:
total : 216,100 km
paved: 61,589 km (including 600 km of expressways)
unpaved : 154,511 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural
gas 9,918 km

Ports and harbors: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia,
Concepcion del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio
Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
total: 36 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 263,266 GRT/385,211 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, chemical tanker 1, container 2, oil tanker
14, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 6, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1
(1996 est.)

Airports: 1,202 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 598
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m : 44
under 914 m: 469 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 604
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 59
914 to 1,523 m: 542 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic,
Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture
(Coast Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,932,491 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 7,244,682 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 321,345 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the boundary with Chile is
indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas
Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine
headed for Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

ARMENIA

Introduction

Current issues: Armenia's leaders remain preoccupied by Armenia's
nine-year old conflict with Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh
enclave. Although a cease-fire has been in effect since May 1994, the
sides have not made substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution.
President TER-PETROSSIAN's latitude on the issue may be further
constrained by his controversial reelection in September 1996. When
supporters of the main opposition candidate stormed the parliament
following the announcement of TER-PETROSSIAN's victory, MVD forces
were called in to restore order. The subsequent political standoff
between government and opposition supporters diminished in late 1996
as the government has gradually attempted reconciliation. Despite
these political problems, the Armenian government has been pursuing
its aggressive economic reform program, although implementation of its
privatization program stalled in late 1996.

@Armenia:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total : 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc,
alumina

Land use:
arable land : 17%
permanent crops: 3%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,870 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such
as DDT; energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has
led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution
of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a
result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water
supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without adequate
(IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: landlocked

@Armenia:People

Population: 3,433,629 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 27% (male 476,375; female 456,723)
15-64 years: 65% (male 1,088,103; female 1,134,649)
65 years and over: 8% (male 115,135; female 162,644) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.33% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.59 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 40.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66.9 years
male: 62.69 years
female: 71.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.71 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other (mostly
Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
Armenia

Religions: Armenian Orthodox 94%

Languages: Armenian 96%, Russian 2%, other 2%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female : 98% (1989 est.)

@Armenia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form : Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun
local short form: Hayastan
former : Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Data code: AM

Government type: republic

National capital: Yerevan

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (marzer, singular - marz) and 1
city* (k'aghak'ner, singular - k'aghak'); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir,
Geghark'unik', Kotayk', Lorri, Shirak, Syunik', Tavush, Vayots' Dzor,
Yerevan*

Independence: 28 May 1918 (First Armenian Republic); 23 September 1991
(from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Referendum Day, 21 September

Constitution: adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN (since NA
October 1991); note - prior to becoming Armenia's first president,
TER-PETROSSIAN was chairman of the Armenian Supreme Soviet since 4
August 1990
head of government: Prime Minister Robert KOCHARIAN (since 20 March
1997)
cabinet : Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 22 September 1996 (next to be held NA September
2001); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN elected president;
percent of vote - Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSSIAN 52%, Vazgen MANUKYAN
41%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Azgayin Zhoghov
(190 seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Republican Bloc 159 (ANM 63, DLP-Hanrapetutyun Bloc 6, Republic Party
4, CDU 3, Intellectual Armenia 3, Social Democratic Party 2,
independents 78), SWM 8, ACP 7, NDU 5, NSDU 3, DLP 1, ARF 1, other 4,
vacant 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders:
Republic Bloc (Hanrapetoutioun): Armenian National Movement or ANM
[Husik LAZARIAN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party [Orthosis
GYONJIAN, chairman]; Republican Party [Ashot NAVARSARDIAN, chairman];
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Azat ARSHAKIAN, chairman];
Intellectual Armenia [H. TOKMAJIAN]; Social Democratic (Hnchakian)
Party [Yeghia NAJARIAN]
opposition parties: Shamiram Women's Movement or SWM [Shoger
MATEVOSIAN]; Armenian Communist Party or ACP [Sergey BADALYAN];
National Democratic Union or NDU [Davit VARDANIAN and Vasgen
MANUKIAN]; Union of National Self-Determination or NSDU [Paruir
HAIRIKIAN, chairman]; Democratic Liberal Party or DLP [Rouben
MIRZAKHANIAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation or ARF
[Rouben HAKOBIAN, chairman]

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EBRD, ECE, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC, NAM
(observer), OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben SHUGARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX : [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TOMSEN
embassy: 18 Gen Bagramian, Yerevan
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [374] (2) 151-144, 524-661
FAX: [374] (2) 151-550

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and
gold

Economy

Economy - overview: Under the old Soviet central planning system,
Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine
building tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister
republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the
implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to
small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes
of the Soviet area. The privatization of industry has been at a much
slower pace. Armenia is a food importer and its mineral deposits
(gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over
the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the
embargoes imposed by Azerbaijan and Turkey contributed to a severe
economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian
Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic program
that has resulted in positive growth rates in 1995 and 1996. Armenia
also managed to slash inflation and to privatize most small and
medium-sized enterprises. The chronic energy shortages Armenia
suffered in recent years has been partially offset by the energy
supplied by one of its nuclear power plants at Metsamor, which in 1996
supplied about 40% of the country's energy needs, according to the
Armenian Government. Moreover, Armenia is expanding its energy imports
from Iran.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.7 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 35%
industry: 35%
services : 30% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.6 million (1996)
by occupation: industry and construction 23%, agriculture 38%,
services 37%, other 2%

Unemployment rate: 7.4% officially registered unemployed, but large
numbers of underemployed (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: much of industry is shut down; metal-cutting machine
tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted
wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, washing machines, chemicals,
trucks, watches, instruments, microelectronics

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.77 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 6.3 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,462 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: fruit (especially grapes), vegetables;
vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other liqueurs; minor
livestock sector

Exports:
total value : $273 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: gold and jewelry, aluminum, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, scrap metal
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia

Imports:
total value : $830 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: grain, other foods, fuel, other energy
partners: Iran, Russia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, US, EU

Debt - external: $850 million (of which $75 million to Russia) (1995
est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: commitments (excluding Russia), $1,385 million ($675 million in
disbursements) (1992-95)

Currency: 1 dram = 100 luma (introduced new currency in November 1993)

Exchange rates: dram per US$1 - 443 (December 1996), 401.8 (end
December 1995), 406 (end December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Armenia:Communications

Telephones: 650,000

Telephone system: joint venture agreement to install fiber-optic cable
and construct facilities for cellular telephone service is in the
implementation phase
domestic: NA
international : international connections to other former Soviet
republics are by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow
international gateway switch; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 3, shortwave NA (1991)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1
note: 100% of population receives Armenian and Russian TV programs

Televisions: NA

@Armenia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 825 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 825 km 1.520-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total : 7,720 km
paved: 7,496 km
unpaved: 224 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: natural gas 900 km (1991)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Security Forces
(internal and border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 907,579 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 722,715 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 30,942 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $75 million (1992)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on
former Armenian lands in Turkey have subsided

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis mostly for domestic
consumption; used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Western Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

ARUBA

(part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands) 

@Aruba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 193 sq km
land: 193 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 89% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Aruba:People

Population: 68,031 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 22% (male 7,814; female 7,127)
15-64 years: 69% (male 22,544; female 24,656)
65 years and over: 9% (male 2,433; female 3,457) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.39% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.2 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.8 years
male: 73.11 years
female : 80.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban

Ethnic groups: mixed white/Caribbean Amerindian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA

@Aruba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Dependency status: part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; full
autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
Netherlands Antilles

Government type: NA

National capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; in 1990,
Aruba requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard of the Netherlands
(since 30 April 1980), represented by Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN
(since 1 January 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29 July
1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES
cabinet : Council of Ministers elected by the Staten
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; governor general
appointed for a six-year term by the queen; prime minister and deputy
prime minister elected by the Staten for a four-year term; election
last held 29 July 1994 (next to be held by July 1998)
election results : Jan (Henny) H. EMAN elected prime minister; percent
of legislative vote - NA; Glenbert F. CROES elected deputy prime
minister; percent of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats;
members elected by direct popular vote and serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AVP
10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Nelson
ODUBER]; Aruban People's Party or AVP [Jan (Henny) H. EMAN]; National
Democratic Action or ADN [Pedro Charro KELLY]; New Patriotic Party or
PPN [Eddy WERLEMEN]; Aruban Patriotic Party or PPA [Benny NISBET];
Aruban Democratic Party or PDA [Leo BERLINSKI]; Democratic Action '86
or AD '86 [Arturo ODUBER]; Aruban Liberal Party or OLA [Glenbert
CROES]
note: governing coalition includes the AVP and OLA

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate), Interpol,
IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom
of the Netherlands)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (part of the Kingdom of
the Netherlands)

Flag description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes
across the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in
white in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy

Economy - overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last decade
has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings, has
further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than 1%
unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies
despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $21,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.5% (1996)

Labor force: NA
by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1996)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1994)

Budget:
revenues: $145 million
expenditures : $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42
million (1988)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fishing

Exports:
total value: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
partners: US 64%, EU

Imports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
crude oil for refining and reexport
partners: US 8%, EU

Debt - external: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: the Netherlands provided a 1996 aid package of $224
million to Aruba, the Netherlands Antilles, and Suriname

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Aruba:Communications

Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: more than adequate
international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)

@Aruba:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km
note : most coastal roads are paved, while unpaved roads serve large
tracts of the interior

Ports and harbors: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine:
total : 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,274 GRT/ 10,130 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the
Netherlands

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: drug money-laundering center and transit point for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe; added to the US list of major
drug producing or drug transit countries in December 1996
______________________________________________________________________

ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS
Islands]

(territory of Australia)

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean, northwest of
Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5 sq km
land: 5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
Cartier Island

Area - comparative: about eight times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose maritime
hazards

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established in
August 1983

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are only seasonal caretakers

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
conventional short form : Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered by the
Australian Ministry for Sport, Territories, and Local Government

National capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Ashmore and Cartier Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

ATLANTIC OCEAN
[Map of Argentina]

@Atlantic Ocean:Geography

Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and the
Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 82.217 million sq km
note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary
water bodies

Area - comparative: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from
August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre
(broad, circular system of currents) in the northern Atlantic,
counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic; the ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south
centerline for the entire Atlantic basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
highest point : sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic
nodules, precious stones

Natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and
the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been
spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from
Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic Ocean; ships subject
to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to
May and extreme southern Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog
can be a maritime hazard from May to September

Environment - current issues: endangered marine species include the
manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international
disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil,
and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico,
Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and
municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean
Sea

Environment - international agreements:
party to : none of the selected agreements
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: major choke points include the Dardanelles, Strait
of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic straits
include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona Passage, The
Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean

@Atlantic Ocean:Government

Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data
Codes appendix

Economy

Economy - overview: The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's
most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and
Western Hemispheres. Other economic activity includes the exploitation
of natural resources, e.g., fishing, the dredging of aragonite sands
(The Bahamas), and production of crude oil and natural gas (Caribbean
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and North Sea).

@Atlantic Ocean:Communications

Telephone system:
international: numerous submarine cables with most between continental
Europe and the UK, between North America and the UK, and in the
Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via satellite
networks

@Atlantic Ocean:Transportation

Ports and harbors: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp
(Belgium), Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca
(Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal),
Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas
(Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon (Portugal), London
(UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada),
Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo
(Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (Russia), Stockholm (Sweden)

Transportation - note: Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two
important waterways

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRALIA

@Australia:Geography

Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South
Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 7,686,850 sq km
land: 7,617,930 sq km
water : 68,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 54%
forests and woodland: 19%
other : 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 21,070 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts

Environment - current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing,
industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil
salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification;
clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of
many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the
northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by
increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification

Geography - note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer

@Australia:People

Population: 18,438,824 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 2,018,363; female 1,921,252)
15-64 years: 66% (male 6,188,476; female 6,041,173)
65 years and over : 12% (male 987,092; female 1,282,468) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.96% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.73 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 79.64 years
male : 76.69 years
female: 82.74 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.83 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian

Ethnic groups: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian 24.3%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female : 100% (1980 est.)

@Australia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Government type: federal parliamentary state

National capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos
(Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir William DEANE (since 16 February
1996)
head of government : Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
March 1996); Deputy Prime Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11
March 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet selected from among the members of Federal Parliament
by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually
appointed prime minister by the governor general for a three-year term

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the
Senate (76 seats - 12 from each of the six states and two from each of
the two territories; one-half of the members elected every three years
by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of
Representatives (148 seats; members elected by popular vote on the
basis of proportional representation to serve three-year terms; no
state can have fewer than five representatives)
elections: Senate - last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA 1999);
House of Representatives - last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA
1999)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens
1, independent 1; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a
change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is as
follows - Liberal-National 37, Labor 28, Australian Democrats 7,
Greens 2, independents 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal-National 94, Labor 49,
independent 5

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other justices
are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders:
government : coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD, and
National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER
opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian Democratic
Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Political pressure groups and leaders: Australian Democratic Labor
Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC,
AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G- 8, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM
(guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Sharp PEACOCK
chancery : 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, and
San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Genta Hawkins HOLMES
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern Cross
constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four,
larger, seven-pointed stars

Economy

Economy - overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP above the levels in highly
industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources,
Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals,
metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for about 60% of the
value of total exports, so that a downturn in world commodity prices
can have a big impact on the economy. The government is pushing for
increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe. Australia has suffered
from the low growth and high unemployment characterizing the OECD
countries in the early 1990s, but the economy has expanded at
reasonably steady rates in recent years. In addition to high
unemployment, short-term economic problems include a balancing of
output growth and inflationary pressures and the stimulation of
exports to offset rising imports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $430.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,600 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 27.7%
services: 69.2% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8.4 million (December 1996)
by occupation : finance and services 34%, public and community
services 23%, wholesale and retail trade 20%, manufacturing and
industry 17%, agriculture 6% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $95.69 billion
expenditures : $95.15 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 38.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 173 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 8,278 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle,
sheep, poultry

Exports:
total value: $59.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, iron ore, wheat,
machinery and transport equipment
partners: Japan 24%, South Korea 8%, NZ 7%, US 7%, UK, Taiwan,
Singapore, Hong Kong (1994/95)

Imports:
total value : $59.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and
petroleum products
partners: US 22%, Japan 17%, UK 6%, China 5%, NZ 5% (1994/95)

Debt - external: $134 billion (June 1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.25 billion (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Australia:Communications

Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system
international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and
Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and
6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)

@Australia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge)
broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total : 895,030 km
paved: 345,482 km (including 1,330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 549,548 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas
5,600 km

Ports and harbors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport,
Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay,
Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,282,084 GRT/3,326,092
DWT
ships by type : bulk 30, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
1, container 5, liquefied gas tanker 4, oil tanker 14,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 443 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 275
over 3,047 m : 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 106
914 to 1,523 m: 116
under 914 m : 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 168
1,524 to 2,437 m: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 146 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal
Australian Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 4,863,007 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 4,200,090 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 127,508 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $7.9 billion (FY96/97)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (FY96/97)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian
Antarctic Territory)

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit
opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of
opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate
______________________________________________________________________

AUSTRIA

@Austria:Geography

Location: Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 83,850 sq km
land: 82,730 sq km
water : 1,120 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,564 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330
km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent
rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional
showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
arable land: 17%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland: 39%
other : 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: some forest degradation caused by air
and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of
agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal-
and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks
transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern
lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures
elsewhere

@Austria:People

Population: 8,132,505 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 717,989; female 681,897)
15-64 years: 68% (male 2,777,525; female 2,703,296)
65 years and over : 15% (male 464,802; female 786,996) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: -0.02% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.17 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.05 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.59 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.15 years
male : 73.96 years
female: 80.51 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

Languages: German

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1974 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Austria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (Bundeslaender, singular -
Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich,
Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 1156 (from Bavaria)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review
of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Viktor KLIMA (since 28 January 1997);
Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of
the chancellor
elections : president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
presidential election last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held NA 1998);
chancellor chosen by the president from the majority party in the
National Council; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the
advice of the chancellor
election results: Thomas KLESTIL elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung
consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (63 members; members
represent each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with
each province having at least three representatives) and the National
Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 17 December 1995 (next to be
held Fall 1999)
election results : National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe
38.3%, OeVP 28.3%, FPOe 22.1%, Greens 4.6%, LF 5.3%, other 1.4%; seats
by party - SPOe 71, OeVP 53, FPOe 40, Greens 9, LF 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof;
Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court
or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria or
SPOe [Viktor KLIMA, chairman]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP
[Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman]; Freedom Movement or FPOe (formerly the
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Joerg HAIDER, chairman]; Communist
Party or KPOe [Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman]; The Greens [Madeleine
PETROVIC]; Liberal Forum or LF [Heide SCHMIDT]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Federal Chamber of Trade and
Commerce; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or
OeGB; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP
representing business, labor, and farmers; OeVP-oriented League of
Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its
chief lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
MINURSO, MTCR, NACC (observer), NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU
(observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
chancery : 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone : [43] (1) 313-39
FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and red

Economy

Economy - overview: Austria has a well-developed market economy with a
sizable - but falling - proportion of nationalized industry, an
extensive social safety net, and a high standard of living. Austria's
economy is closely integrated with Germany and other EU members -
Austria joined the EU on 1 January 1995. Since the early 1980s, the
Austrian economy has experienced stable growth. EU membership has had
a positive impact on foreign investment and has helped to lower
inflation. In April 1996, the government passed a two-year austerity
budget - including cuts in social allowances, a freeze on civil
servants' wages, and new energy and capital gains taxes - designed to
bring the economy in line with the Maastricht criteria for membership
in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). EMU convergence has
become a top priority for Austria. Despite Austria's generally
favorable prospects, the economy faces a number of medium-term
challenges; for example, fiscal tightening is constraining expected
growth, and unemployment is expected to increase.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $157.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 27%
services : 70% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 3.648 million (1996)
by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture
and forestry 8.1%
note : an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of
labor force (1988)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $61.2 billion
expenditures: $71 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 17.43 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 56.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 5,960 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets; cattle,
pigs, poultry; sawn wood

Exports:
total value: $55.5 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
textiles, paper products, chemicals
partners: EU 64.8% (Germany 38.1%, Italy 8.1%), Eastern Europe 11.8%,
Japan 1.6%, US 3.5% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $65.8 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners: EU 68.4% (Germany 40%, Italy 8.8%), Eastern Europe 6.55%,
Japan 4.3%, US 4.4% (1994)

Debt - external: $30.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $544 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (AS) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (AS) per US$1 - 11.302 (January
1997), 10.587 (1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993),
10.989 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Austria:Communications

Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: highly developed and efficient
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)

@Austria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 5,624 km
standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (86 km electrified)
(1995)

Highways: 200,000 km
paved: 200,000 km (including 1,596 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 446 km

Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural gas
2,611 km

Ports and harbors: Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
total: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 84,623 GRT/116,682 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 22, combination bulk 2, container 1,
refrigerated cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 55 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 51
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 41 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m : 4 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,107,905 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,754,823 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 46,298 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.1 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
South American cocaine destined for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

AZERBAIJAN

Introduction

Current issues: Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved
nine-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its
Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared
independence and seized almost 20% of the country's territory,
creating almost 1 million Azerbaijani refugees in the process. Both
sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place
since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now
entering its fifth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi (Stepanakert,
Nagorno-Karabakh region) remain far apart on most substantive issues
from the placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the
enclave's ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated
settlement remain dim.

@Azerbaijan:Geography

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran
and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
total: 2,013 km
border countries : Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
(with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with
Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179
km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland
in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into
Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
metals, alumina

Land use:
arable land: 18%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 25%
forests and woodland: 11%
other : 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron
(Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea
to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of
severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the
use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the
production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: landlocked

@Azerbaijan:People

Population: 7,797,476 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 1,302,759; female 1,247,868)
15-64 years: 61% (male 2,315,272; female 2,446,087)
65 years and over: 6% (male 186,699; female 298,791) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 63.52 years
male : 59.27 years
female: 67.99 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)

@Azerbaijan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form : none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11
cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar
respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas
Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara
Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu,
Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu,
Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy
Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli
Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran
Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir
Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala
Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan
Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu,
Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi
Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*,
Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu,
Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali
Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax
Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since NA November
1996); First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV (since NA), Samed
SADYKOV (since NA), Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA), Elchin EFENDIYEV (since
NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed
by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote -
Heydar ALIYEV 97%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125
seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF
[Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman]; Musavat Party [Isa GAMBAR, chairman];
National Independence Party [Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman]; Social
Democratic Party or SDP [Araz ALIZADE, chairman]; Communist Party
[Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman]; People's Freedom Party [Yunus OGUZ,
chairman]; Independent Social Democratic Party [Arif YUNUSOV and Leila
YUNOSOVA, cochairmen]; New Azerbaijan Party [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman];
Boz Gurd Party [Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman]; Azerbaijan Democratic
Independence Party [Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman]; Islamic Party of
Azerbaijan [Ali Akram, chairman]; Ana Veten Party [Fazail AGAMALIYEV];
Azerbaijan Democratic Party [Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan
Democratic Party of Proprietors or DPOP [Makhmud MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan
Patriotic Solidarity Party [Sabir RUSTAMHANLI]; Azerbaijan Republic
Reform Party [Fuad ASADOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan
(unregistered) [Sayad SAYADOV]; Equality of the Peoples Party
[Faukhraddin AYDAYEV]; Independent Azerbaijan Party [Nizami
SULEYMANOV]; Labor Party of Azerbaijan [Sabutai HAJIYEV];
Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Lyudmila NIKOLAYEVNA];
National Enlightenment Party [Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV]; National
Liberation Party [Panak SHAKHSEVEV]; Peasant Party [Firuz MUSTAFAYEV];
Radical Party of Azerbaijan [Malik SHARIFOV]; United Azerbaijan Party
[Kerrar ABILOV]; Vetan Adzhagy Party [Zakir TAGIYEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval,
Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer),
OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
20005 or P. O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790
telephone : [1] (202) 842-0001
FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku
mailing address : use embassy street address
telephone: [9] (9412) 96-03-35
FAX: [9] (9412) 96-04-69

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red
band

Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It
resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim
population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living.
The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas.
Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline for
several years, but the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion
oil deal with a consortium of Western companies should generate the
funds needed to spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan shares
all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in making the
transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable
energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only
recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic
ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major short-term
obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign
investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the ethnic
Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Trade with Russia and
the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while
trade is building up with the nations of Europe, Turkey, Iran and the
UAE.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.9 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,550 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry : 30%
services: 44% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 20% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2.789 million
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction
26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 1.1% includes officially registered unemployed;
also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed
workers (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $565 million
expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield
equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals;
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -8% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 5.24 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.63 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit,
vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $700 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
cotton
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports:
total value: $900 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
textiles
partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt - external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $14 million (1993)
note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in
disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,230 (November 1996), 4,375 (April
1996), 4,500 (April 1995), 4,168 (end of December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Azerbaijan:Communications

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations
(January 1991 est.)
domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint
venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area is
operational
international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former
Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway
switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1
Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey
to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New
York)

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2
note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and
Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through
a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA

@Azerbaijan:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial
lines
broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 57,770 km
paved: 54,188 km
unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas
1,240 km

Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 29
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 40
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,982,747 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,596,087 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 69,524 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 33.5 billion manats (1994);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist
conflict against the Azerbaijani Government; Caspian Sea boundaries
are not yet determined among Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakstan, Russia, and
Turkmenistan

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly
for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
transshipment point for opiates to Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

THE BAHAMAS

@The Bahamas:Geography

Location: Caribbean, chain of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
southeast of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 24 15 N, 76 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 13,940 sq km
land: 10,070 sq km
water : 3,870 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
(measured from the archipelagic straight baselines)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Alvernia 63 m

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 32%
other : 67% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause
extensive flood and wind damage

Environment - current issues: coral reef decay

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba;
extensive island chain

@The Bahamas:People

Population: 275,941 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 39,280; female 38,755)
15-64 years: 66% (male 89,483; female 93,479)
65 years and over : 6% (male 6,209; female 8,735) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.41% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 21.47 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.45 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 19.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.75 years
male: 70.36 years
female : 77.2 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.36 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahamian(s)
adjective: Bahamian

Ethnic groups: black 85%, white 15%

Religions: Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist
6%, Church of God 6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other
2%

Languages: English, Creole (among Haitian immigrants)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write but definition of
literacy not available
total population: 98.2%
male: 98.5%
female: 98% (1995 est.)

@The Bahamas:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Commonwealth of The Bahamas
conventional short form: The Bahamas

Data code: BF

Government type: commonwealth

National capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Acklins and Crooked Islands,
Bimini, Cat Island, Exuma, Freeport, Fresh Creek, Governor's Harbour,
Green Turtle Cay, Harbour Island, High Rock, Inagua, Kemps Bay, Long
Island, Marsh Harbour, Mayaguana, New Providence, Nicholls Town and
Berry Islands, Ragged Island, Rock Sound, Sandy Point, San Salvador
and Rum Cay

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 10 July (1973)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Orville TURNQUEST (since 2 January
1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM (since 19
August 1992) and Deputy Prime Minister Frank WATSON (since December
1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the prime
minister's recommendation
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister and deputy prime minister
appointed by the governor general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(16-member body appointed by the governor general upon the advice of
the prime minister and the opposition leader for a five-year term) and
the House of Assembly (40 seats; members elected by direct popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 March 1997 (next to be held by March 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FNM
34, PLP 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry
CHRISTIE]; Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CCC, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Arlington Griffith BUTLER
chancery: 2220 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 319-2660
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2668
consulate(s) general : Miami and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sidney WILLIAMS
embassy: Queen Street, Nassau
mailing address: P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau; American Embassy, Nassau,
P.O. Box 9009, Miami, FL 33159; Nassau, Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-3370 (pouch)
telephone: [1] (242) 322-1181, 328-2206
FAX: [1] (242) 328-7838

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top),
gold, and aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the
hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The Bahamas is a stable, developing nation with an
economy heavily dependent on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism
alone accounts for more than 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly
employs 40% of the archipelago's labor force. A slowdown in the
expansion of the tourism sector - especially stopover travel from
Europe - led to a reduction in the country's GDP growth rate in 1995,
down to an estimated 2% from 3.5% in 1994. The construction sector
benefited from hotel rehabilitation and the government's ongoing
housing development program. Earnings from exports of vegetable and
citrus production have been decreasing since 1993 but were expected to
increase in 1996 due to storm damage to crops in Florida. Overall
growth prospects in the short run will depend heavily on the fortunes
of the tourism sector and continued income growth in the US, which
accounts for the majority of tourist visits.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $18,700 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 6%
services: 91% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 136,900 (1993)
by occupation : government 30%, tourism 40%, business services 10%,
agriculture 5% (1995 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $665 million
expenditures: $725 million, including capital expenditures of $94
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment,
salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral-welded steel
pipe

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 267,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 874 million kWh (1993)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,717 kWh (1993)

Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables; poultry

Exports:
total value: $267.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish, refined petroleum
products
partners: US 24%, Spain 14%, UK 7%, Norway 7%, France 6%, Italy 5%
(1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $1.17 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, crude oil, vehicles,
electronics
partners : US 29%, Finland 10%, Iran 10%, Denmark 8%

Debt - external: $393 million (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1 - 1.00 (February 1997;
fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@The Bahamas:Communications

Telephones: 119,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : totally automatic system; highly developed
international: tropospheric scatter and submarine cable to Florida; 3
coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 200,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 60,000 (1993 est.)

@The Bahamas:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,450 km
paved: 1,406 km
unpaved: 1,044 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Freeport, Matthew Town, Nassau

Merchant marine:
total: 988 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,690,478
GRT/37,428,826 DWT
ships by type: bulk 176, cargo 205, chemical tanker 41, combination
bulk 7, combination ore/oil 23, container 56, liquefied gas tanker 21,
oil tanker 184, passenger 47, refrigerated cargo 150, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 53, short-sea passenger 11, vehicle carrier 14
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 46 countries
among which are Norway 157, Greece 146, UK 128, US 69, Denmark 51,
Sweden 34, Finland 32, Belgium 29, Japan 27, and Monaco 27; Bahamas
owns 10 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 256,379 DWT that
operate under Panamanian and Cypriot registry (1996 est.)

Airports: 54 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 47
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (Coast Guard only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $20 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for
US and Europe; banking industry vulnerable to money-laundering
______________________________________________________________________

BAHRAIN

@Bahrain:Geography

Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi
Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total : 620 sq km
land: 620 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
escarpment

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish

Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 92% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms

Environment - current issues: desertification resulting from the
degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust
storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and
sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from
large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural
fresh water resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only
sources for all water needs

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources;
strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western world's
petroleum must transit to reach open ocean

@Bahrain:People

Population: 603,318 (July 1997 est.)
note: includes 221,182 non-nationals (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 31% (male 94,330; female 91,532)
15-64 years: 66% (male 240,496; female 160,662)
65 years and over : 3% (male 8,375; female 7,923) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.01 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 3.27 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.5 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.32 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 16.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.63 years
male: 72.1 years
female : 77.24 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bahraini(s)
adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic groups: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian 8%,
other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.2%
male: 89.1%
female: 79.4% (1995 est.)

@Bahrain:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : State of Bahrain
conventional short form: Bahrain
local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Government type: traditional monarchy

National capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalities (manatiq, singular -
mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah
al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar Rifa'wa al
Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat 'Isa, Juzur
Hawar, Sitrah
note : all municipalities administered from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state : Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November
1961); Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (son of the
Amir, born 28 January 1949)
head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
(since 19 January 1970)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the amir
elections: none; the amir is a traditional Arab monarch; prime
minister appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Political pressure groups and leaders: several small, clandestine
leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the
arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists have fomented unrest
sporadically since late 1994, demanding the return of an elected
National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR Abdallah
chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742
FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM (scheduled to depart in
June 1997)
embassy : Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
Zinj District, Manama
mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; International Mail Box 26431,
Manama (International Mail)
telephone: [973] 273-300
FAX : [973] 275-418

Flag description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points)
on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing
account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues,
and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing
fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf
crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and
transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous multinational firms
with business in the Gulf. A large share of exports consists of
petroleum products made from imported crude. Construction proceeds on
several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the
young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources
are major long-term economic problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $13,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 38%
services: 61% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 140,000
by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%,
government 3% (1982)
note: 44.39% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national
(July 1997 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $1.49 billion
expenditures: $1.67 billion, including capital expenditures of $300
million (1995)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 1.05 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 4.28 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,102 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products;
shrimp, fish

Exports:
total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : petroleum and petroleum products 61%, aluminum 7%
partners: India 22%, Japan 12%, Saudi Arabia 6%, US 6%, UAE 5% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $3.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: nonoil 63%, crude oil 37%
partners: Saudi Arabia 40%, US 13%, UK 7%, Japan 5%, Switzerland 5%
(1995)

Debt - external: $3.2 billion (1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bahrain:Communications

Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and excellent
international connections
domestic: NA
international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio
relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and Saudi
Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1
Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)

@Bahrain:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,740 km
paved: 2,159 km
unpaved: 581 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas 32
km

Ports and harbors: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,060 GRT/194,061 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1 (1996
est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
over 3,047 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard,
Internal Security Forces

Military manpower - military age: 15 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 216,444 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 119,781 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $256 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.4% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: territorial dispute with Qatar over the
Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar
______________________________________________________________________

BAKER ISLAND

(territory of the US) 

@Baker Island:Geography

Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of
the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 1.4 sq km
land: 1.4 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation
consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife

@Baker Island:People

Population: uninhabited
note : American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during
World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by
special-use permit only and generally restricted to scientists and
educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins are located near the middle
of the west coast

@Baker Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Dependency status: unincorporated territory of the US; administered by
the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as
part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

National capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag description: the flag of the US is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Baker Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one
boat landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Transportation - note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
west coast

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
annually by the US Coast Guard

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BANGLADESH

@Bangladesh:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma
and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 144,000 sq km
land: 133,910 sq km
water : 10,090 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
total : 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 18 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
arable land: 73%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 5%
forests and woodland: 15%
other: 5% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 31,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
flooded during the summer monsoon season

Environment - current issues: many people are landless and forced to
live on and cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable
water; water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of
fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides;
intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the
northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation;
deforestation; severe overpopulation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

@Bangladesh:People

Population: 125,340,261 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 24,397,316; female 23,417,919)
15-64 years : 59% (male 37,758,378; female 35,715,343)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,204,445; female 1,846,860) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.82% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 29.8 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.19 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.26 years
male: 56.35 years
female : 56.16 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.45 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than 1
million

Religions: Muslim 88.3%, Hindu 10.5%, other 1.2%

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 38.1%
male: 49.4%
female : 26.1% (1995 est.)

@Bangladesh:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
former : East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Government type: republic

National capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
Rajshahi
note: there may be two new divisions named Barisal and Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986, amended
many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Shahabuddin AHMED (since 9 October 1996);
note - the president's duties are normally ceremonial, but with the
13th amendment to the constitution ("Caretaker Government Amendment"),
the president's role becomes significant at times when Parliament is
dissolved and a caretaker government is installed - at presidential
direction - to supervise the elections
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina WAJED (since 23 June
1996)
cabinet : Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the
president
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year
term; election last held 24 July 1996 (next to be held by NA October
2001); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that
wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the
president
election results : Shahabuddin AHMED elected president without
opposition; percent of National Parliament vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad
(330 seats; 300 elected by popular vote from single territorial
constituencies, 30 seats reserved for women; members serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: percent of vote by party - AL 33.87%, BNP 30.87%;
seats by party - AL 178, BNP 113, JP 33, JI 3, other 2, election still
to be held 1; note - the elections of 12 June 1996 brought to power an
Awami League government for the first time in twenty-one years; held
under a neutral, caretaker administration, the elections were
characterized by a peaceful, orderly process and massive voter
turnout, ending a bitter two-year impasse between the former BNP and
opposition parties that had paralyzed National Parliament and led to
widespread street violence

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other judges
are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo
Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD; Jamaat-E-Islami (JI), Motiur
Rahman NIZAMI; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin Ahmed MANIK

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Khwaja Mohammad SHEHABUDDIN
chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone : [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David N. MERRILL
embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address : G.P.O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722
FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam

Economy

Economy - overview: Despite sustained domestic and international
efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh
remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and least
developed nations. Annual GDP growth has averaged over 4% in recent
years from a low base. Its economy is largely agricultural, with the
cultivation of rice the single most important activity in the economy.
Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, the
inefficiency of state-owned enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force
that cannot be absorbed by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy
resources (natural gas), inadequate power supplies, and slow
implementation of economic reforms. Frequent strikes that crippled the
economy in 1995 and early 1996 subsided after Prime Minister Sheikh
Hasina WAJED's Awami League government assumed power in mid-1996,
allowing a return to normal economic activity. The current government
has made some headway improving the climate for foreign investors and
liberalizing the capital markets; for example, it has negotiated with
foreign firms for oil and gas exploration, better countrywide
distribution of cooking gas, and the construction of natural gas
pipelines and power plants. Progress on other economic reforms has
been halting because of opposition from the bureaucracy, public sector
unions, and other vested interest groups.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $155.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,260 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 18%
services: 51% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (FY95/96)

Labor force:
total: 50.1 million
by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining 14%
(1989)
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

Unemployment rate: 35.9% (1996)

Budget:
revenues : $4.1 billion
expenditures: $6 billion, including capital expenditures of $3 billion
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 5.7% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.98 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 10.01 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 76 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes;
beef, milk, poultry

Exports:
total value: $3.9 billion (FY95/96 est.)
commodities : garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and
seafood
partners: Western Europe 42%, US 30%, Hong Kong 4%, Japan 3% (FY95/96
est.)

Imports:
total value: $6.8 billion (FY95/96 est.)
commodities: capital goods, textiles, food, petroleum products
partners: India 21%, China 10%, Western Europe 8%, Hong Kong 7%,
Singapore 6% (FY95/96 est.)

Debt - external: $17.1 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient : $1.585 billion (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 42.450 (January 1997), 41.794
(1996), 40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bangladesh:Communications

Telephones: 249,800 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: poor domestic telephone service
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 350,000 (1993 est.)

@Bangladesh:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,892 km
broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
total : 168,513 km
paved: 15,672 km
unpaved: 152,841 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes 2,575-3,058 km
main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports and harbors: Chittagong, Dhaka, Chalna Port (Mongla)

Merchant marine:
total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 323,057 GRT/464,090 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 32, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces
(includes Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve,
Village Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 32,797,816 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 19,406,790 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $481 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a portion of the boundary with India in
dispute; Bangladesh and India signed a treaty 12 December 1996 to
share water from the Ganges

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
neighboring countries
______________________________________________________________________

BARBADOS

@Barbados:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 430 sq km
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland : 12%
other: 46% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides

Environment - current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste
disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal
threatens contamination of aquifers

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: easternmost Caribbean island

@Barbados:People

Population: 258,756 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 24% (male 31,025; female 30,197)
15-64 years: 66% (male 83,977; female 87,208)
65 years and over : 10% (male 10,002; female 16,347) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.12% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.35 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.25 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.6 years
male : 71.84 years
female: 77.43 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.88 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Barbadian(s)
adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic groups: black 80%, white 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist 7%,
other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9% (1980)

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97.4%
male: 98%
female: 96.8% (1995 est.)

@Barbados:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint
Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative
acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clifford Straughn HUSBANDS (since
1 June 1996)
head of government : Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
September 1994); Deputy Prime Minister Billie MILLER (since 6
September 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate
(21-member body appointed by the governor general) and the House of
Assembly (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections : House of Assembly - last held 6 September 1994 (next to be
held by January 1999)
election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - BLP 19, DLP 8, NDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature, judges are appointed by
the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Service

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party or DLP [David
THOMPSON]; Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; National
Democratic Party or NDP [Richard HAYNES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Barbados Workers Union [Leroy
TROTMAN]; People's Progressive Movement [Eric SEALY]; Workers' Party
of Barbados [Dr. George BELLE]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David
COMMISSIONG]

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9218, 9219
FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE
embassy : Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
Bridgetown
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
telephone : [1] (246) 436-4950
FAX: [1] (246) 429-5246

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the
past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)

Economy

Economy - overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy had been
dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but in
recent years the production has diversified into manufacturing and
tourism. The start of the Port Charles Marina project in Speightstown
helped the tourism industry continue to expand in 1996. The industry
generated $331.8 million by the end of June and was expected to double
by the end of the year. Prime Minister Owen ARTHUR called for
"prudent" financial management to ensure that economic growth would
continue. As part of his plan, the Prime Minister introduced a
controversial Value Added Tax (VAT) in an effort to reform the tax
administration process. The VAT will be administered at 15% for most
industries and 7% for the tourism industry. The government has also
continued its efforts to promote regional integration initiatives, to
reduce the unacceptably high unemployment rate, and to encourage
direct foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.65 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 6.4%
industry: 39.3%
services: 54.3% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.8% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 126,000 (1993)
by occupation: services and government 41%, commerce 15%,
manufacturing and construction 18%, transportation, storage,
communications, and financial institutions 8%, agriculture 6%,
utilities 2% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.2% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $550 million
expenditures: $710 million, including capital expenditures of $86
million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 153,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 644 million kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,208 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Exports:
total value: $235 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages,
chemicals, electrical components, clothing
partners: US 13%, UK 10%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

Imports:
total value: $763 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction
materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
partners: US 36%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%

Debt - external: $359 million (December 1996)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed
rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Barbados:Communications

Telephones: 87,343 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: island wide automatic telephone system
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)

Televisions: 69,350 (1993 est.)

@Barbados:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 1,610 km
paved : 1,542 km
unpaved: 68 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bridgetown

Merchant marine:
total: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 453,828 GRT/684,470 DWT
ships by type : bulk 16, cargo 27, combination bulk 4, oil tanker 3,
refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground
Forces and Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 71,547 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 49,446 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
narcotics bound for the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BASSAS DA INDIA

(possession of France) 

@Bassas da India:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique Channel,
about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 0.2 sq km
land: 0.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about one-third the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Bassas da India:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bassas da India:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

National capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Bassas da India:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar
______________________________________________________________________

BELARUS

@Belarus:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
total: 207,600 sq km
land: 207,600 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
total: 3,098 km
border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between
continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and
natural gas

Land use:
arable land : 29%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 15%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use;
southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986
nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity, Environmental Modification, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked

@Belarus:People

Population: 10,412,219 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 21% (male 1,092,760; female 1,047,992)
15-64 years : 66% (male 3,346,111; female 3,547,352)
65 years and over: 13% (male 452,267; female 925,737) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.01% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.23 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.4 years
male: 62.48 years
female: 74.61 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic groups: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic,
Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male : 99%
female: 97% (1989 est.)

@Belarus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Belarus
conventional short form: Belarus
local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
local short form: none
former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Government type: republic

National capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and one
municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union); the Belarusian
Supreme Soviet issued a proclamation of independence; on 17 July 1990
Belarus issued a declaration of sovereignty

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 July (1990); note - date set by
referendum of November 1996

Constitution: referendum of 27 November 1996 (declared illegitimate by
the international community) adopted a new constitution massing power
in the hands of the president; signed into law on 28 November 1996

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sergey LING (acting since NA
November 1996, confirmed NA February 1997); First Deputy Prime
Minister Pyotr PROKOPOVICH (since NA); Deputy Prime Ministers Vladimir
GARKUN (since NA), Valeriy KOKAREV (since NA), Vladimir RUSAKEVICH
(since NA), Vasyl DALGALYOV (since NA)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 2001
because of the additional two years provided by the November 1996
referendum); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Aleksandr LUKASHENKO elected president; percent of
vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%
note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament established by the 28
November Constitution consists of the Council of the Republic (64
seats; the president appoints 8 and each oblast plus the Minsk city
government elect 8) and the Chamber of Representatives (110 seats;
note - present members came from the defunct Supreme Soviet)
elections: last held May and November-December 1995 (two rounds, each
with a run-off; next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KPB
42, Agrarian 33, CAB 9, Party of People's Concord 8, UPNAZ 2, SDPB 2,
BPR 1, Green Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, BSP 1,
NFB 1, Social and Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, independents 95,
vacant 62; note - after the November 1996 referendum, seats for the
Chamber of Representatives were filled by former Supreme Soviet
members as follows: PKB 24, Agrarian 14, Party of Peoples Concord 5,
LDPB 1, UPNAZ 1, Green World Party 1, Belarusian Social Sports Party
1, Ecological Party 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1,
independents 60; 58 of the 64 seats in the Council of the Republic
have been appointed/elected

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president;
Constitutional Court, half of the judges appointed by the president
and half appointed by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Communist Party or KPB
[Yefrem SOKOLOV and Viktor CHIKIN, chairmen]; Agrarian Party
[Aleksandr PAVLOV, chairman]; Civic Accord Bloc (United Civic Party)
or CAB [Stanislav BOGDANKEVICH, chairman]; Party of People's Concord
[Leonid SECHKO, chairman]; Party of All-Belarusian Unity and Concord
or UPNAZ [Dmitriy BULAKOV, chairman]; Belarusian Social-Democrat
Hramada or SDBP [Nikolai STATKEVICH, chairman]; Belarusian Patriotic
Movement (Belarusian Patriotic Party) or BPR [Anatol BARANKEVICH];
Green Party of Belarus [Nikolai KARTASH, chairman]; Republican Party
of Labor and Justice [Anatol NETYLKIN, chairman]; Belarus Peasants or
BSP [Yevgeniy LUGIN, chairman]; Belarusian Popular Front or NFB [Levon
BARSHEVSKIY, acting chairman]; Belarusian Social Sports Party
[Aleksandr ALEKSANDROVICH, chairman]; Ecological Party [Liudmila
YELIZAROVA, chairman]; National Democratic Party of Belarus or NDPB
[Viktor NAUMENKO, chairman]; United Democratic Party of Belarus or
ADPB [Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY]; Belarusian Socialist Party or SPB
[Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV]; Slavic Assembly or SAB [Nikolai SYARECHEV];
Liberal-Democratic Party or LDPB [Sergei GAIDUKEVICH, chairman];
Belarusian Christian-Democratic Unity or BKDZ [Petr SILKO]; Polish
Democratic Union or PDZ [Konstantin TARASEVICH]; Party of Beer Lovers
[Yuriy GONCHAR]; Party of Communists Belarusian or PKB [Sergei
KALYAKIN and Vasiliy NOVIKOV, chairmen]; Belarusian Labor Party or BPP
[Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV]

International organization participation: BIS, CCC, CEI, CIS, EBRD,
ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC,
OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador-designate Valeriy TSEPKALO
chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Kenneth Spencer YALOWITZ
embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [375] (172) 31-50-00
FAX : [375] (172) 34-78-53

Flag description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band
one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of white
on the hoist side bears in red the Belarusian national ornament

Economy

Economy - overview: At the time of independence in late 1991, Belarus
was one of the most developed of the former Soviet states, inheriting
a modern - by Soviet standards - machine building sector and robust
agricultural sector. However, the breakup of the Soviet Union and its
traditional trade ties in December 1991, as well as the government's
failure to embrace market reforms, has resulted in a sharp economic
decline. Privatization is virtually nonexistent and the system of
state orders and distribution persists. Although President LUKASHENKO
pronounces his 1995 macro stabilization policies a success - annual
inflation dropped from 2,220% in 1994 to 244% in 1995 - the IMF has
criticized his exchange rate policies and suspended Minsk's $300
million standby program in November 1995. The overvalued ruble has
especially hurt Belarusian exporters, most of which now operate at a
loss. In addition, the January 1995 Customs Union agreement with
Russia - which required Minsk to adjust its foreign trade practices to
mirror Moscow's - has resulted in higher import tariffs for Belarusian
consumers; tariffs rose from 5%-20% to 20%-40%. In general, as of the
beginning of 1997, Belarus has badly lagged in moving away from the
old centrally planned policies of the former USSR.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $51.9 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 49%
services: 30% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 33% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 4.731 million
by occupation: industry and construction 36%, agriculture and forestry
19%, services 45% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% officially registered unemployed (December
1996); large numbers of underemployed workers

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: tractors, metal-cutting machine tools, off-highway dump
trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity, wheel-type earth movers for
construction and mining, eight-wheel-drive, high-flotation trucks with
cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use in tundra and roadless areas,
equipment for animal husbandry and livestock feeding, motorcycles,
television sets, chemical fibers, fertilizer, linen fabric, wool
fabric, radios, refrigerators, other consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 7.21 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 23.7 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,553 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, vegetables; meat, milk

Exports:
total value: $5.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Imports:
total value: $6.8 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles,
sugar
partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Debt - external: $2 billion (September 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $186 million (1993)
note : commitments, $3,930 million ($1,845 million disbursements),
1992-95

Currency: Belarusian ruble (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubles per US$1 - 16,613 (September monthly
average 1996),15,500 (yearend 1996), 11,500 (yearend 1995), 10,600
(yearend 1994), 699 (yearend 1993), 15 (yearend 1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belarus:Communications

Telephones: 1.849 million (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service inadequate for the purposes of
either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are in
homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones remain
unsatisfied (1992 est.); new investment centers on international
connections and business needs
domestic : the new NMT-450 analog cellular system is now operating in
Minsk
international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow
international gateway switch and also by satellite; satellite earth
stations - 1 Intelsat (through Canada) and 1 Eutelsat (through the UK)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.17 million (1991 est.) (5,615,000 with multiple speaker
systems for program diffusion)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private; the
license of the private station was suspended during the parliamentary
elections of 1994)

Televisions: 3.5 million (1992 est.)

@Belarus:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,488 km
broad gauge: 5,488 km 1.520-m gauge (873 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
total: 51,547 km
paved: 50,825 km
unpaved: 722 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used canal
and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural gas
1,980 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Mazyr

Merchant marine:
note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet (1995 est.)

Airports: 118 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 36
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 82
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 62 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Interior
Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,659,236 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,083,696 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 77,496 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 2.4 trillion rubles (1997);
note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: treaty with Lithuania defining the border
awaits demarcation

Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly
for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to
Russia and Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BELGIUM

@Belgium:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France and
the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 30,510 sq km
land: 30,230 sq km
water: 280 sq km

Area - comparative: about the size of Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 1,385 km
border countries : France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf : median line with neighbors
exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
km from coast)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: North Sea 0 m
highest point : Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
arable land : 24%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 21%
other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km including Luxembourg (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes

Environment - current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking
water, polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by
animal wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes to
acid rain in neighboring countries

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear
Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Law of
the Sea

Geography - note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
both the EU and NATO

@Belgium:People

Population: 10,165,059 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 911,881; female 868,361)
15-64 years: 66% (male 3,385,319; female 3,318,940)
65 years and over : 17% (male 681,432; female 999,126) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.11% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.41 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.19 years
male : 73.95 years
female: 80.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belgian(s)
adjective: Belgian

Ethnic groups: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Flemish 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Belgium:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Belgium
conventional short form: Belgium
local long form: Royaume de Belgique/Koninkrijk Belgie
local short form: Belgique/Belgie

Data code: BE

Government type: federal parliamentary democracy under a
constitutional monarch

National capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces, singular -
province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen,
West-Vlaanderen
note: constitutional reforms passed by Parliament in 1993
theoretically increased the number of provinces to 10 by splitting the
province of Brabant into two new provinces, Flemish Brabant and
Walloon Brabant, but this has not been confirmed by the US Government

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King LEOPOLD to
the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993; parliament
approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
1992)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king and approved by
Parliament
elections: none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the king and then approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate or
Senaat in Flemish, Senat in French (71 seats; 40 members are directly
elected, 31 will be indirectly elected at a later date; members serve
four-year terms) and a Chamber of Deputies or Kamer van
Volksvertegenwoordigers in Flemish, Chambre des Representants in
French (150 seats; members are directly elected by proportional
representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate and Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 May 1995
(next to be held by the end of 1999)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - CVP 7, SP 6, VLD 6, VU 2, AGALEV 1, VB 3, PS 5, PRL 5, PSC 3,
ECOLO 2; note - before the 1995 elections, there were 184 seats;
Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - CVP 17.2%, PS 11.9%,
SP 12.6%, VLD 13.1%, PRL 10.3%, PSC 7.7%, VB 7.8%, VU 4.7%, ECOLO
4.0%, AGALEV 4.4%, FN 2.3%; seats by party - CVP 29, PS 21, SP 20, VLD
21, PRL 18, PSC 12, VB 11, VU 5, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, FN 2; note -
before the 1995 elections, there were 212 seats
note: as a result of the 1993 constitutional revision that furthered
devolution into a federal state, there are now three levels of
government (federal, regional, and linguistic community) with a
complex division of responsibilities; this reality leaves six
governments each with its own legislative assembly; for other acronyms
of the listed parties see Political parties and leaders

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie in
Flemish, Cour de Cassation in French, judges are appointed for life by
the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats or CVP
(Christian People's Party) [Marc VAN PEEL, president]; Francophone
Christian Democrats or PSC (Social Christian Party) [Gerard DEPREZ,
president]; Flemish Socialist Party or SP [Louis TOBBACK, president];
Francophone Socialist Party or PS [Philippe BUSQUIN, president];
Flemish Liberal Democrats or VLD [Herman DE CROO, president];
Francophone Liberal Reformation Party or PRL [Louis MICHEL,
president]; Francophone Democratic Front or FDF [Olivier MAINGAIN,
president]; Volksunie or VU [Bert ANCIAUX, president]; Vlaams Blok or
VB; National Front or FN [Frank VANHECKE, president]; AGALEV (Flemish
Greens) [no president]; ECOLO (Francophone Greens) [no president];
other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian and Socialist Trade
Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations
representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the
legal and medical professions; various organizations represent the
cultural interests of Flanders and Wallonia; various peace groups such
as the Flemish Action Committee Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax
Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB,
ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM
chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
mailing address: APO AE 09724, PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels
telephone : [32] (2) 508-2111
FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: This highly developed private enterprise economy
has capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed
transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base.
Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the
north, although the government is encouraging reinvestment in the
southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources, Belgium must
import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large
volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on the
state of world markets. Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU
countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% annual pace during the
period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993,
recovered with moderate 2.3% growth in 1994 and 1995, and fell off
again to 1.4% in 1996, with continued substantial unemployment.
Belgium's public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is
trying to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line
with other industrialized countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $204.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2%
industry: 28%
services : 70% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 4.126 million
by occupation: services 69.7%, industry 27.7%, agriculture 2.6% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle assembly,
processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles,
glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.59 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 74.4 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,823 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Exports:
total value: $108 billion (f.o.b., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union (BLEU)
commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
diamonds, petroleum products
partners : EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8%, former Communist countries
1.4% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $140 billion (c.i.f., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union
commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
partners: EU 68% (Germany 22.1%), US 8.8%, former Communist countries
0.8% (1994)

Debt - external: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $808 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 33.067 (January 1997),
30.962 (1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Belgium:Communications

Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
completely automated domestic and international telephone and
telegraph facilities
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
network; limited microwave radio relay network
international : 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 32 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)

@Belgium:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,396 km (2,363 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
standard gauge : 3,396 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 142,563 km
paved: 142,563 km (including 1,667 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural gas
3,300 km

Ports and harbors: Antwerp (one of the world's busiest ports), Brugge,
Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur, Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
total: 25 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 102,363 GRT/152,951 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 2,
liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 10 (1996 est.)

Airports: 42 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 39
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m : 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 2,559,951 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,122,673 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 63,005 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $4.6 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.7% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine, heroin, hashish,
and marijuana entering Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BELIZE

@Belize:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 22,960 sq km
land: 22,800 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 516 km
border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's territorial
sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act, 1992, the
purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for the
negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences with
Guatemala

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 2%
forests and woodland: 92%
other: 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)

Environment - current issues: deforestation; water pollution from
sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of the
Sea, Marine Dumping, Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City
to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America
without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

@Belize:People

Population: 224,663 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 48,921; female 47,057)
15-64 years: 54% (male 61,133; female 59,466)
65 years and over: 3% (male 3,965; female 4,121) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 31.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.61 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.75 years
male: 66.8 years
female: 70.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.99 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Belizean(s)
adjective: Belizean

Ethnic groups: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%, other
8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%, Methodist
6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal 2%, Jehovah's
Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy:
definition: age 14 and over has ever attended school
total population: 70.3%
male: 70.3%
female: 70.3% (1991 est.)
note : other sources list the literacy rate as high as 75%

@Belize:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Belize
former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal, Orange
Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Colville YOUNG (since 17 November
1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993);
Deputy Prime Minister Dean BARROW (since NA July 1993)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of
the prime minister
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen; prime minister appointed by the governor
general

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate
(8 members; members are appointed for five-year terms, five on the
advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of the leader of the
opposition, and one after consultation with the Belize Advisory
Council - this council serves as an independent body to advise the
governor general with respect to difficult decisions such as granting
pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the removal of justices of
appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.) and the National Assembly
(29 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
no later than September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PUP
13, UDP 15, NABR 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by the
governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party or PUP [Said
MUSA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean BARROW];
National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR [Philip GOLDSON]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of
Education and Research or SPEAR [Assad SHOMAN]; United Workers Front

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, ECLAC,
FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James S. MURPHY
chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
FAX : [1] (202) 332-6888
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador George Charles BRUNO
embassy : Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Unit 7401, APO AA 34025
telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms;
the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of
a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

Economy

Economy - overview: The small, essentially private enterprise economy
is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
importance. Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and provides 75%
of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner,
is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an
agricultural diversification program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $649 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,960 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 27%
services : 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 51,500
by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
(1985)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $140 million
expenditures: $180 million, including capital expenditures of NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1990)

Electricity - capacity: 34,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber;
fish, cultured shrimp

Exports:
total value: $204 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
molasses, wood
partners : US 38%, UK, other EU (1994)

Imports:
total value: $264 million (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
partners : US 53%, UK, other EU, Mexico (1994)

Debt - external: $192 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Belize:Communications

Telephones: 29,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system
domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 8, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)

@Belize:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,770 km
paved: 521 km
unpaved : 2,249 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports and harbors: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
total: 166 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,592,846 GRT/1,087,555
DWT
ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 117, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 13, passenger-cargo
1, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, specialized tanker
1, vehicle carrier 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 35 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air
Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 54,163 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 32,176 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 2,471 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $8.1 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
resolve the dispute are ongoing

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; small-scale illicit
producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
money-laundering center
______________________________________________________________________

BENIN

@Benin:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 112,620 sq km
land: 110,620 sq km
water: 2,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,989 km
border countries : Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Tanekas 641 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
timber

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 48% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter

Environment - current issues: recent droughts have severely affected
marginal agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water;
poaching threatens wildlife populations; deforestation;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: no natural harbors

@Benin:People

Population: 5,902,178 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 1,420,335; female 1,411,160)
15-64 years: 50% (male 1,401,360; female 1,530,626)
65 years and over : 2% (male 60,704; female 77,993) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.31% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.28 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.14 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.15 years
male: 51.15 years
female: 55.21 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
adjective: Beninese

Ethnic groups: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common vernaculars
in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in north)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 37%
male: 48.7%
female: 25.8% (1995 est.)

@Benin:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Benin
conventional short form: Benin
local long form: Republique du Benin
local short form : Benin
former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Government type: republic under multiparty democratic rule; dropped
Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted February
1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

National capital: Porto-Novo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU (since 4 April 1996);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; Prime Minister Adrien HOUNGBEDJI (since 9 April 1996) acts
as assistant to the president; a prime minister is not provided for in
the constitution but was appointed by President KEREKOU with the
permission of the constitutional court
cabinet: Council of Ministers headed by the prime minister; all are
appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001)
election results: Mathieu KEREKOU elected president; percent of vote -
Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (83 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RB
20, PRD 19, FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, Communist
Party 2, Alliance Chameleon 1, RDP 1, other 17

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court or Cour Constitutionnelle,
Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Alliance of the National Party for
Democracy and Development or PNDD and the Democratic Renewal Party or
PRD [Pascal Chabi KAO]; Action for Renewal and Development or
FARD-ALAFIA [Mathieu KEREKOU]; Alliance of the Social Democratic Party
or PSD and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress or UNSP
[Bruno AMOUSSOU]; Alliance Chameleon; Alliance for Democracy and
Progress or ADP [Adekpedjon AKINDES]; Alliance for Social Democracy or
ASD [Robert DOSSOU]; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National
Reconstruction or RDL [Severin ADJOVI]; Communist Party of Benin,
[Pascal FATONDJI, First Secretary]; Our Common Cause or NCC [Albert
TEVOEDJRE]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP; The Renaissance
Party of Benin or RB [Nicephore SOGLO]
note: as of February 1996, more than 80 political parties were
officially recognized

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
chancery : 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
FAX : [1] (202) 265-1996

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
telephone : [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
with a vertical green band on the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and regional
trade. Growth in real output, which had averaged a sound 4% in
1990-95, rose to 5.5% in 1996. Rapid population growth offset much of
this growth in output. Inflation jumped to 55% in 1994 (compared to 3%
in 1993) following the 50% currency devaluation in January 1994, but
has subsided gradually over the past two years, with 14.5% inflation
in 1995 and a target of 4.5% inflation in 1996. Commercial and
transport activities, which make up a large part of GDP, are extremely
vulnerable to developments in Nigeria as evidenced by decreased
reexport trade in 1994 due to a severe contraction in Nigerian demand.
Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral creditors has eased
the external debt situation in recent years. The government, still
burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a bloated civil
service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank supported
structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,440 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 36.8%
industry: 12.6%
services : 50.6% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 14.5% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $272 million (1993 est.)
expenditures: $375 million, including capital expenditures of $84
million (1993 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 28,000 kW (1992)

Electricity - production: 10 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 45 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans,
rice, cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Exports:
total value : $300 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
partners: Brazil 18%, Portugal 14%, Morocco, Libya, France

Imports:
total value: $380 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities : foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
partners: France 27%, Thailand 9%, China, Hong Kong

Debt - external: $1.6 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Benin:Communications

Telephones: 16,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fair system of open wire and microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 20,000 (1993 est.)

@Benin:Transportation

Railways:
total: 578 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 8,460 km
paved: 2,656 km
unpaved: 5,804 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports and harbors: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,261,059
females age 15-49: 1,333,966 (1997 est.)
note: both sexes are liable for military service

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 645,660 (1997 est.)
females: 675,243 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 64,028
females: 63,056 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $33 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
Western Europe and the US
______________________________________________________________________

BERMUDA

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Bermuda:Geography

Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean,
east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total : 50 sq km
land: 50 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops : NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: 20%
other: 80% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)

Environment - current issues: asbestos disposal; water pollution

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with ample
rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed land was
leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995

@Bermuda:People

Population: 62,569 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.75% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.92 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.03 years
male : 73.36 years
female: 76.97 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic groups: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 28%, Roman Catholic 15%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 12%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%, Methodist 5%, other
34% (1991)

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male : 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)

@Bermuda:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Bermuda

Data code: BD

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint
Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor John MASEFIELD (since June 1997)
head of government: Premier Pamela GORDON (since 25 March 1997);
Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1 September 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor appointed
by the queen; premier appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an
11-member body appointed by the governor) and the House of Assembly
(40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year
terms)
elections: last held 5 October 1993 (next to be held by NA October
1998)
election results : percent of vote by party - UBP 50%, PLP 46%,
independents 4%; seats by party - UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party or UBP [Pamela
GORDON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; National
Liberal Party or NLP [Charles JEFFERS]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
[Derrick BURGESS]

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Robert A. FARMER
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a
red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
providing financial services for international firms and luxury
tourist facilities for 200,000 visitors annually. The tourist industry
attracts 91% of its business from North America. The industrial sector
is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable
land. About 80% of food needs are imported. International business
contributes over 60% of Bermuda's economic output; a failed
independence vote in late 1995 can be partially attributed to
Bermudian's fear of scaring away foreign firms.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $29,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 34,133
by occupation: clerical 23%, services 23%, laborers 17%, professional
and technical 16%, administrative and managerial 12%, sales 7%,
agriculture and fishing 2% (1995)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $406.2 million
expenditures : $405.9 million, including capital expenditures of $34.5
million (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, insurance, structural concrete products,
paints, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 145,000 kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 527,526,728 kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,856 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy
products

Exports:
total value: $54 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, reexports of
pharmaceuticals
partners : Netherlands 50%, Brazil 13%, Canada 6% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $550 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: miscellaneous manufactured articles, machinery and
transport equipment, food and live animals, chemicals
partners: US 73%, UK 5%, Canada 5% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (February
1997; fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Bermuda:Communications

Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)

@Bermuda:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 225 km
paved: 225 km
unpaved : 0 km (1997 est.)
note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that
are privately owned

Ports and harbors: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,416,667 GRT/5,163,435
DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 1, container 15, liquefied gas tanker 14,
oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 12, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4,
short-sea passenger 2, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1,
livestock carrier 1
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11 countries
among which are UK 26, Canada 12, US 9, Norway 7, Hong Kong 4, Nigeria
4, Sweden 4, Switzerland 2, Mexico 1, and Romania 1; Bermuda owns 48
additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,911,678 DWT that
operate under Australian, Bahamian, Hong Kong, Liberian, Panamanian
and Singaporean registry (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda
Reserve Constabulary

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BHUTAN

@Bhutan:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 47,000 sq km
land: 47,000 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,075 km
border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m
highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 6%
forests and woodland: 66%
other: 26% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are the
source of the country's name which translates as Land of the Thunder
Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season

Environment - current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable
water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified : Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

@Bhutan:People

Population: 1,865,191 (July 1997 est.)
note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 387,721; female 359,857)
15-64 years: 56% (male 536,797; female 507,551)
65 years and over: 4% (male 37,249; female 36,016) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.3% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 37.91 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.94 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 114 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 51.88 years
male: 52.37 years
female: 51.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.27 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic groups: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or migrant
tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects,
Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.2%
male: 56.2%
female: 28.1% (1995 est.)

People - note: refugee issue over the presence in Nepal of
approximately 100,000 Bhutanese refugees, 90% of whom are in seven
United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
camps

@Bhutan:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Bhutan
conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Government type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

National capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen WANGCHUCK
became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972); note
- the king is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972);
note - the king is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) appointed by the
king
note: there is also a Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), members
nominated by the king
elections : none; the king is a hereditary monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Tshogdu (150
seats; 105 elected from village constituencies, 12 represent religious
bodies, and 33 are designated by the king to represent government and
other secular interests; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held NA (next to be held NA)
election results: NA

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High Court,
judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: Buddhist clergy; Indian
merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Bhutan has a
Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by Ugyen TSERING; address: 2
United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
(212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular
jurisdiction in the US
consulate(s) general: New York
honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US and Bhutan have no
formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
facing away from the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and least
developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the
main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about 40% of
GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal
husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the building
of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The economy
is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary
links. The industrial sector is small and technologically backward,
with most production of the cottage industry type. Most development
projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labor.
Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists are key
resources; however, the government limits the number of tourists to
4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence. The Bhutanese Government
has made some progress in expanding the nation's productive base and
improving social welfare, but growth continues to be constrained by
the government's desire to protect the country's environment and
cultural traditions. Growth picked up in 1995 and the country's
balance of payments remained strong with comfortable reserves. The
cautious fiscal stance planned for FY95/96 suggests continued economic
stability in 1996. However, excessive controls and uncertain policies
in areas like industrial licensing, trade, labor, and finance continue
to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $730 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 42%
industry: 31%
services : 27%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.6% (FY94/95 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation : agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
note: massive lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $52 million
expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95
million (FY93/94 est.)
note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of Bhutan's
budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 351,000 kW (1989)

Electricity - production: 1.67 billion kWh (1994)
note: exports electricity to India

Electricity - consumption per capita: 79 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains;
dairy products, eggs

Exports:
total value: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.)
commodities: cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports:
total value: $113.6 million (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.)
commodities : fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics, rice
partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

Debt - external: $141 million (October 1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 35.872 (January 1997), 35.433
(1996), 32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992);
note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Bhutan:Communications

Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few
telephones in use
international : international telephone and telegraph service is by
landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)

@Bhutan:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,210 km
paved: 0 km
unpaved : 2,210 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 455,556 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 243,156 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 18,290 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BOLIVIA

@Bolivia:Geography

Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 1,098,580 sq km
land: 1,084,390 sq km
water : 14,190 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 6,743 km
border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano),
hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Rio Paraguay 90 m
highest point: Cerro Illimani 6,882 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 24%
forests and woodland : 53%
other: 21% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,750 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast (March-April)

Environment - current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural
purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are
contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor
cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture);
desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water
supplies used for drinking and irrigation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping,
Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geography - note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru

@Bolivia:People

Population: 7,669,868 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 40% (male 1,543,641; female 1,511,579)
15-64 years: 56% (male 2,081,792; female 2,184,876)
65 years and over : 4% (male 158,409; female 189,571) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.04% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.14 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 10.18 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.56 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 65.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 60.34 years
male: 57.46 years
female : 63.38 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.18 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bolivian(s)
adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed white and
Amerindian ancestry) 25%-30%, white 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara (official)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 90.5%
female: 76% (1995 est.)

@Bolivia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
conventional short form: Bolivia
local long form: Republica de Bolivia
local short form : Bolivia

Data code: BL

Government type: republic

National capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital
and seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967; revised in August 1994

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente (since
6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6
August 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA Bustamente
(since 6 August 1993); Vice President Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde
(since 6 August 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state
and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from a panel of candidates
proposed by the Senate
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 June 1993 (next
to be held June 1997); Constitutional reforms extend presidential and
vice presidential terms to 5 years beginning in 1997
election results: Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA elected president; percent
of vote - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%, Hugo BANZER Suarez
(ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles (CONDEPA) 14%, Max
FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no
candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE
LOZADA won a congressional runoff election on 4 August 1993 after
forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and Antonio ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ
died in a plane crash 26 November 1995

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (27 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats; members are
directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies - last held 6
June 1993 (next to be held June 1997); Constitutional reforms extend
congressional terms to 5 years beginning in 1997
election results: Chamber of Senators - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS 1; Chamber of
Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MNR 52, UCS
20, ADN 17, MIR 17, CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PDC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed for a
10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Left Parties: Free Bolivia Movement or MBL [Antonio ARANIBAR];
Patriotic Axis of Convergence or EJE-P [Ramiro BARRANECHEA]; April 9
Revolutionary Vanguard or VR-9 [Carlos SERRATE]; Alternative of
Democratic Socialism or ASD [Jerjes JUSTINIANO]; Revolutionary Front
of the Left or FRI [Oscar ZAMORA]; Bolivian Communist Party or PCB
[Marcos DOMIC]; United Left or IU [Marcos DOMIC]; Assembly for the
Sovereignty of the People or ASP [Evo MORALES]; Front of National
Salvation or FSN [Manual MORALES Davila]; Socialist Party One or PS-1;
Bolivian Socialist Falange or FSB; Socialist Unzaguista Movement or
MAS
Center-Left Parties: Movement of the Revolutionary or MIR [Jaime PAZ
ZAMORA]; Christian Democrat or PDC [Benjamin MIGUEL]; New Youth Force
[Alfonso SAAVEDRA Bruno]
Center Party: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement or MNR [Gonzalo
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA]
Center-Right Parties : Nationalist Democratic Action or ADN [Hugo
BANZER]; New Republican Force or NFR [Manfred REYES VILLA]
Populist Parties: Civic Solidarity Union or UCS [Johnny FERNANDEZ];
Conscience of the Fatherland or CONDEPA [Remedios LOZA Alvarado];
Solidarity and Democracy or SYD; Unity and Progress Movement or MUP
[Ivo KULJIS]; Popular Patriotic Movement or MPP [Julio MANTILLA]
Evangelical Party : Bolivian Renovating Alliance or ARBOL [Marcelo
FERNANDEZ, Hugo VILLEGAS]
Indigenous Parties: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement or
MRTK-L [Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde]; Nationalist Katarista Movement or
MKN [Fernando UNTOJA]; Front of Katarista Unity or FULKA [Genaro
FLORES]; Katarismo National Unity or KND [Filepe KITTELSON]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Alvaro COSSIO
chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
FAX : [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone : [591] (2) 430251
FAX: [591] (2) 433900

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
centered in the yellow band

Economy

Economy - overview: With its long history of semifeudal social
controls, dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and
bouts of hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and
least developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has
experienced generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ
Estenssoro administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented
policies which reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20% in
1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ Zamora
(1989-93) who continued the free-market policies of his predecessor,
despite opposition from his own party and from Bolivia's once powerful
labor movement. By maintaining fiscal discipline, PAZ Zamora helped
reduce inflation to 9.3% in 1993, while GDP grew by an annual average
of 3.25% during his tenure. Inaugurated in August 1993, President
SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has vowed to advance the market-oriented economic
reforms he helped launch as PAZ Estenssoro's planning minister. His
successes include the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico
and the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) as well as the
privatization of the state airline, phone company, railroad, electric
power company, and oil company. Furthermore, SANCHEZ DE LOZADA
sponsored legislation creating private social security accounts for
all adult Bolivians and capitalized these new accounts with the
state's remaining 50% share in the privatized companies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1996)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 31%
services : 52% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.3 million
by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and utilities NA%,
manufacturing, mining and construction NA%

Unemployment rate: 18.8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.75 billion
expenditures : $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of $556.2
million (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 804,300 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 3.02 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 334 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%,
wood 8%
partners: US 26%, Argentina 17%, UK 15%, Peru 14% (1995)

Imports:
total value : $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
(1993 est.)
partners: US 18%, Brazil 15%, Japan 13%, Argentina 8% (1995)

Debt - external: $4.3 billion (November 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 5.1720 (November 1996),
4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bolivia:Communications

Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties; most
telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
domestic : microwave radio relay system being expanded
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)

@Bolivia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,691 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 55,487 km
paved: 2,663 km (including 27 km of expressways)
unpaved : 52,824 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports and harbors: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in
the maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 941 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 693
over 3,047 m : 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 683 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 248
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 68
914 to 1,523 m: 178 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval
Boliviana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana),
National Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,811,952 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,178,259 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 80,606 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $145 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South
Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884;
dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after Peru
and Colombia) with an estimated 48,100 hectares under cultivation in
1996, a one percent decrease in overall cultivation of coca over 1995
levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest producer of coca leaf;
even so, voluntary and forced eradication programs resulted in leaf
production dropping from 85,000 metric tons in 1995 to 75,100 tons in
1996; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia
and Brazil to the US and other international drug markets; alternative
crop program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation
______________________________________________________________________

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Introduction

Current issues: On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former
Yugoslavia's three warring parties signed a peace agreement that
brought to a halt over three years of interethnic civil strife in
Bosnia and Herzegovina (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14
December 1995). The Dayton Agreement, signed by Bosnian President
IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President
MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia and Herzegovina roughly equally between the
Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining
Bosnia's currently recognized borders. In 1995-96, a NATO-led
international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in
Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement.
IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR)
whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR will remain in
place until June 1998. A High Representative appointed by the UN
Security Council is responsible for civilian implementation of the
accord, including monitoring implementation, facilitating any
difficulties arising in connection with civilian implementation, and
coordinating activities of the civilian organizations and agencies in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian conflict began in the spring of
1992 when the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina held a referendum
on independence and the Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring
Serbia - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the
republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a
"greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced
the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an
agreement in Washington creating their joint Muslim/Croat Federation
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Federation, formed by the Muslims and
Croats in March 1994, is one of two entities (the other being the
Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska) that comprise Bosnia and
Herzegovina.

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
total: 51,233 sq km
land: 51,233 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 1,459 km
border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km
with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have
short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters
along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper,
chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 14%
permanent crops : 5%
permanent pastures: 20%
forests and woodland: 39%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants;
sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties,
water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the
1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders,
the country is divided into a joint Muslim-Croat Federation (about 51%
of the territory) and a Serb Republic, The Republika Srpska [RS]
(about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is
contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic
Croat majority

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:People

Population: 3,222,584 (July 1997 est.)
note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
error because of the dislocations caused by military action and ethnic
cleansing

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 301,637; female 284,694)
15-64 years: 70% (male 1,123,477; female 1,140,604)
65 years and over: 12% (male 145,711; female 226,461) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 5.09% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.29 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.88 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 56.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.42 years
male : 54.58 years
female: 64.59 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.09 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic groups: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian (often called Bosnian) 99%

Literacy: NA

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form : none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina

Data code: BK

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions approved by the US Government, but it has been reported that
the Muslim/Croat Federation is comprised of 10 cantons called by
either number or name - Goradzde (5), Livno (10), Middle Bosnia (6),
Neretva (7), Posavina (2), Sarajevo (9), Tuzla Podrinje (3), Una Sana
(1), West Herzegovina (8), Zenica Doboj (4)

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Republika Srpska - "Republic Day", 9 January;
Independence Day, 1 March; Bosnia - "Republic Day", 25 November

Constitution: the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included
a new constitution now in force

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Chairman of the Presidency Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since
14 September 1996); other members of the three-member rotating
presidency: Kresimir ZUBAK (since 14 September 1996 - Croat) and
Momcilo KRAJISNIK (since 14 September 1996 - Serb)
head of government: Cochairman of the Council of Ministers Haris
SILAJDZIC (since NA January 1997); Cochairman of the Council of
Ministers Boro BOSIC (since NA January 1997) NA
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairmen
note: president of the Muslim-Croat Federation of Bosnia and
Herzegovina: Vladimir SOLJIC (since March 1997); president of the
Republika Srpska: Biljana PLAVSIC (since September 1996)
elections: the three presidency members (one each Muslim, Croat, Serb)
are elected by direct election (first election for a two-year term,
thereafter for a four-year term); the president with the most votes
becomes the chairman; election last held 14 September 1996 (next to be
held September 1998); the cochairmen are nominated by the presidency
election results: Alija IZETBEGOVIC elected chairman of the collective
presidency with the highest number of votes; percent of vote - Alija
IZETBEGOVIC received 80% of the Muslim vote to Haris SILAJDZIC's 14%;
Kresimir ZUBAK received 88% of the Croat vote to Ivo KOMSIC's 11%;
Momcilo KRAJISNIK received 68% of the Serb vote to Mladen IVANIC's 30%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina
consists of the National House of Representatives or Vijece Opcina (42
seats - 14 Serb, 14 Croat, and 14 Muslim; members serve NA-year terms)
and the House of Peoples or Vijece Gradanstvo (15 seats - 5 Muslim, 5
Croat, 5 Serb; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: National House of Representatives - elections last held 14
September 1996 (next to be held NA); note - the House of Peoples are
elected by the Muslim-Croat Federation's 140-seat House of
Representatives (two-thirds) and the Bosnian Serb Republic's 83-seat
National Assembly (one-third)
election results: National House of Representatives: two-thirds chosen
from the Muslim-Croat Federation: percent of vote by party - NA; seats
by party - SDA 16, HDZ-BiH 7, Joint List of Social Democrats 3, Party
for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2; one-third chosen from the Bosnian Serb
Republic: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SDS 9, SDA
3, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 2
note: the Muslim-Croat Federation has a House of Representatives with
140 seats: seats by party - SDA 80, HDZ-BiH 33, Party for Bosnia and
Herzegovina 11, Joint List of Social Democrats 10, other 6; the
Republika Srpska has a National Assembly with 83 seats: seats by party
- SDS 50, Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress 10,
Serb Radical Party 7, SDA 6, other 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Party of Democratic Action or SDA
[Alija IZETBEGOVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union of BiH or HDZ-BiH [Bozo
RAJIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Alexander BUHA, acting
president]; Party for Bosnia [Haris SILAJDZIC]; Joint List of Social
Democrats; Democratic Patriotic Front/Union for Peace and Progress;
Civic Democratic Party or GDS [Ibrahim SPAHIC]; Croatian Peasants'
Party of BiH or HSS [Stanko STISKOVIC]; Independent Serbian Democratic
Party or NSDS [Milorad DODIK]; Liberal Bosniak Organization or LBO
[Muhamed FILIPOVIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Rasim KADIC, president];
Muslim-Bosniac Organization or MBO [Adil ZULFIKARPASIC]; Republican
Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina [Stjepan KLJUIC]; Serb Civic Council
or SGV [Mirko PEJANOVIC]; Serb Consultative Council [Ljubomir
BERBEROVIC]; Social Democratic Party or SDP (formerly the Democratic
Party of Socialists or DSS) [Zlatko LAGUMOZIJA, president]; Socialist
Party of Republika Srpska [Zivko RADISIC]; Union of Social Democrats
or SSDB [Selim BESLAGIC]; United Left of the Bosnian Serb Republic or
ULRS [Mile IVOSEVIC]; Yugoslav United Left or JUL [CAREVIC]; Social
Liberal Party [Miodrag ZIVANOVIC]; Serb Radical Party [Miodrag RAKIC];
Serb Patriotic Party [Slavko ZUPLJANIN]; Serb Homeland Party; Party of
Serbian Unity; Republik Srpska Independent Social Democrats [Branko
DOKIC, president]; Serb Party of Posavina and Krajina [Predrag
LAZAREVIC]; National Democratic Union [Fikret ABDIC]
note : 82 parties are registered for the September 1997 municipal
elections

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, ECE, FAO,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), OIC (observer), OSCE, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert
BEECROFT
embassy: 43 Ul. Djure Djakovica, Sarajevo
mailing address: American Embassy Sarajevo, US Department of State,
Washington, DC 20521-7130
telephone: [387] (71) 445-700
FAX: [387] (71) 659-722

Flag description: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains
white fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the upper
hoist corner to the lower outer side

Government - note: Until declaring independence in spring 1992, Bosnia
and Herzegovina existed as a republic in the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia. Bosnia was partitioned by fighting during 1992-95 and
governed by competing ethnic factions. Bosnia's current governing
structures were created by the Dayton Accords, the 1995 peace
agreement which was officially signed in Paris on 14 December 1995 by
Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian President TUDJMAN, and Serbian
President MILOSEVIC. This agreement retained Bosnia's exterior border
and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government. This
national government - based on proportional representation similar to
that which existed in the former socialist regime - is charged with
conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. The Dayton Accords
also recognized a second tier of government, comprised of two entities
- a joint Muslim-Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb Republika
Srpska (RS) - each presiding over roughly one-half the territory.
These Federation and RS governments are charged with overseeing
internal functions. As mandated by the Dayton Accords, the Bosnians on
14 September 1996 participated in the first post-war elections of
national, entity, and cantonal leaders. The Bosnians have been slow to
form and install new joint institutions. A new Federation cabinet was
sworn in 18 December 1996 and the new Bosnian central government
cabinet was confirmed on 3 January 1997.

Economy

Economy - overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old
Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been
greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of communist
central planning and management. TITO had pushed the development of
military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted
a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The bitter interethnic
warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by perhaps 90% since
1990, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. No reliable
economic statistics for 1992-96 are available, although output almost
certainly is well below $1,000 per head. In the Federation,
unemployment remains in the 40%-50% range and inflation is low. By
contrast, growth in the Republika Srpska in 1996 was flat and
inflation surpassed 30%. The country receives substantial amounts of
humanitarian aid from the international community. Wide regional
differences in war damage and access to the outside world have
resulted in substantial variations in living conditions among local
areas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,026,254
by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: officially about 70% but probably much lower,
perhaps 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of
capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 3.991 million kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 1.87 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 475 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Exports:
total value: $152 million (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Imports:
total value : $1.1 billion (1995 est.)
commodities: NA
partners: NA

Debt - external: $3.5 billion (yearend 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $600 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian kuna used in Croat-held area;
old and new Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; the deutsche mark
(DM) has supplanted local currencies throughout Bosnia

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Communications

Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
domestic: NA
international : no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094

@Bosnia and Herzegovina:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km; operating as diesel or steam
until grids are repaired)
standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1995); note - some segments
need repair and/or reconstruction

Highways:
total : 21,168 km
paved: 11,436 km
unpaved: 9,732 km (1991 est.)
note: roads need maintenance and repair

Waterways: NA km; Sava blocked by downed bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
pipelines now disrupted

Ports and harbors: Bosanski Brod (access to Ploce, Croatia)

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 24 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m : 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 865,763 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 696,202 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 23,771 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: disputes with Serbia over Serbian populated
areas

Illicit drugs: transit point for minor regional marijuana trafficking
routes
______________________________________________________________________

BOTSWANA

@Botswana:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 4,013 km
border countries : Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 47%
other: 6% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure
visibility

Environment - current issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited
fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part
of the country

@Botswana:People

Population: 1,500,765 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 319,920; female 312,104)
15-64 years: 54% (male 384,533; female 428,157)
65 years and over : 4% (male 21,949; female 34,102) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.48% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 32.65 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.9 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.52 years
male: 43.52 years
female: 45.55 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.14 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic groups: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi 4%, white
1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.8%
male: 80.5%
female: 59.9% (1995 est.)

@Botswana:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
former : Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Government type: parliamentary republic

National capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*, South-East,
Southern

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July 1980);
Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); note - the president
is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE (since 13 July
1980); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be held NA October
1999); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Sir Ketumile MASIRE elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the House of
Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of the chiefs of
the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs, and three members
selected by the other 12) and the National Assembly (44 seats, 40
members are directly elected by popular vote and 4 appointed by the
majority party; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - elections last held 15 October 1994
(next to be held October 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - BDP
27, BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Sir
Ketumile MASIRE]; Botswana Freedom Party or BFP [leader NA]; Botswana
National Front or BNF [Kenneth KOMA]; Botswana People's Party or BPP
[Knight MARIPE]; Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Archibald Mooketsa MOGWE
chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Robert C. KRUEGER (14 June 1996)
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 353982
FAX: [267] 356947

Flag description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black
stripe in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: Agriculture still provides a livelihood for more
than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of food needs
and accounts for only 4% of GDP. Subsistence farming and cattle
raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. Substantial mineral deposits were found in the 1970s and
the mining sector grew from 25% of GDP in 1980 to 33% in 1995. The
unemployment rate remains a problem at 21%. On the plus side is the
substantial positive trade balance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 43%
services : 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 428,000 (1992)
by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees, including 14,300 who
are employed in various mines in South Africa; most others are engaged
in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.8 billion
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $613
million (FY95/96)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash;
livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity - capacity: 197,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 950 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 747 kWh (1993 est.)

Agriculture - products: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts
(peanuts), beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b. 1995 est.)
commodities: diamonds 71%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 3%
partners: Europe 81%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 14%,
Zimbabwe 3%

Imports:
total value: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
petroleum products
partners: Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 78%, Europe 8%,
Zimbabwe 6%

Debt - external: $691 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 3.6417 (January 1997), 3.3014
(1996), 2.7716 (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Botswana:Communications

Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and
South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)

@Botswana:Transportation

Railways:
total: 971 km
narrow gauge: 971 km 1.067-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 11,800 km
paved : 1,676 km
unpaved: 10,124 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 80 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 34
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 9
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 22 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 46
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m : 43 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air
Wing), Botswana National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 343,929 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 180,692 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 17,632 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $199 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.2% (FY93/94)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: quadripoint with Namibia, Democratic
Republic of the Congo, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement; dispute with
Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe)
River remained unresolved in January 1996 and the parties have agreed
to refer the matter to the ICJ
______________________________________________________________________

BOUVET ISLAND

(territory of Norway) 

@Bouvet Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
total: 58 sq km
land : 58 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly
inaccessible

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: covered by glacial ice

@Bouvet Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Bouvet Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Dependency status: territory of Norway

Flag description: the flag of Norway is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity; declared a nature reserve

@Bouvet Island:Communications

Communications - note: automatic meteorological station

@Bouvet Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Norway

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BRAZIL

@Brazil:Geography

Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 8,511,965 sq km
land : 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
Paulo

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 14,691 km
border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643
km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru
1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf : 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other : 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys
the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and
animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio
de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land
degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common
boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

@Brazil:People

Population: 164,511,366 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 30% (male 25,018,597; female 24,164,894)
15-64 years: 65% (male 53,217,683; female 54,215,461)
65 years and over : 5% (male 3,181,539; female 4,713,192) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.42 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 53.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 61.42 years
male: 56.78 years
female: 66.3 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian, Spanish,
Polish) 55%, mixed white and black 38%, black 6%, other (includes
Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.3%
male: 83.3%
female : 83.2% (1995 est.)

@Brazil:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form : Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1
federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas,
Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do
Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1 January
1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995); note - the
president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Fernando Henrique CARDOSO (since 1
January 1995); Vice President Marco MACIEL (since 1 January 1995);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 3 October 1994
(next to be held NA October 1998)
election results: Fernando Henrique CARDOSO elected president; percent
of vote - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio LULA da Silva
26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel BRIZOLA 3%,
Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second direct presidential election since
1960

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional
consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; three
members from each state or federal district elected according to the
principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third elected
after a four year period, two-thirds elected after the next four-year
period ) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513
seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve
four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 3 October 1994 for two-thirds of
Senate (next to be held October 1998 for one-third of the Senate);
Chamber of Deputies - last held 3 October 1994 (next to be held
October 1998)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - PMBD
28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT 7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%;
seats by party - NA; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party -
PMDB 21%, PFL 18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other
16%; seats by party - NA
note: party totals since the fall of 1994 have changed considerably
due to extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, judges are appointed for
life by the president and confirmed by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or
PMDB [Paes DE ANDRADE, president]; Liberal Front Party or PFL [Jose
JORGE, president]; Workers' Party or PT [Jose DIRCEU, president];
Brazilian Workers' Party or PTB [Rodrigues PALMA, president];
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Leonel BRIZOLA, president]; Brazilian
Progressive Party or PPB [Espiridiao AMIN, president]; Brazilian
Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Artur DA TAVOLA, president]; Popular
Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto FREIRE, president]; Communist Party of
Brazil or PCdoB [Joao AMAZONAS, chairman]; Liberal Party or PL [Alvaro
VALLE, president]; Progressive Reform Party or PPR [Esperido AMIN,
president]

Political pressure groups and leaders: left wing of the Catholic
Church and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are critical
of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS
(pending member), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MTCR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general : Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
FAX : [55] (61) 225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern
as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band
with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

Economy

Economy - overview: Possessing large and well-developed agricultural,
mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil's economy outweighs
that of all other South American countries and is expanding its
presence in world markets. Prior to the institution of a stabilization
plan - the Plano Real (Real Plan) - in mid-1994, stratospheric
inflation rates had disrupted economic activity and discouraged
foreign investment. Since then, tight monetary policy has brought
inflation under control - consumer prices increased by only 10% in
1996 compared to more than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP
growth slowed from 5.7% in 1994 to 2.9% in 1996 due to tighter credit.
The steadily appreciating currency has also encouraged imports,
contributing to a growing trade deficit, and depressed export growth.
Brazil's more stable economy allowed it to weather the fallout in 1995
from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well, and record levels of
foreign investment have since flowed in, helping to swell official
foreign exchange reserves to $60 billion in 1996; stock markets
reflected this increased investor confidence, gaining 53% in dollar
terms. President CARDOSO remains committed to further reducing
inflation in 1997 and putting Brazil on track for expanded economic
growth, but he faces several key challenges. Fiscal reforms requiring
constitutional amendments are stalled in the Brazilian legislature; in
their absence, the government is continuing to run deficits and has
limited room to relax its interest and exchange rate policies much if
it wants to keep inflation under control. High interest rates have
made servicing domestic debt dramatically more burdensome for both
public and private sector entities, contributing to federal and state
budget problems and a surge in bankruptcies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.022 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 38%
services: 49% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 57 million (1989 est.)
by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $86 billion
expenditures: $90 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin,
steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 59.036 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 268.874 billion kWh (1995)
note: imports some electricity from Paraguay

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,572 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef

Exports:
total value: $47.7 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
motor vehicle parts
partners: EU 26%, Latin America 22%, US 23%, Argentina 11% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $53.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
coal
partners : EU 26%, US 24%, Argentina 11%, Japan 5% (1995)

Debt - external: $176 billion (December 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 1.043 (January 1997), 1.005 (1996),
0.918 (1995), 0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994),
88.449 (1993), 4.513 (1992)
note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was
introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reais

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brazil:Communications

Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112
note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting
system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)

@Brazil:Transportation

Railways:
total: 27,418 km (1,750 km electrified)
broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge : 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge
dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways:
total: 1.939 million km
paved: 178,388 km
unpaved: 1,760,612 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural
gas 1,095 km

Ports and harbors: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus,
Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador,
Santos, Vitoria

Merchant marine:
total : 193 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,475,748 GRT/7,175,061
DWT
ships by type: bulk 42, cargo 26, chemical tanker 10, combination
ore/oil 11, container 13, liquefied gas tanker 11, multifunction
large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 62, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11
note: Brazil owns 16 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,270,275 DWT that operate under Bahamian, Liberian, Panamanian, and
St. Vincent and the Grenadines registry (1996 est.)

Airports: 2,871 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1,658
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 125
914 to 1,523 m: 304
under 914 m: 1,205 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1,213
1,524 to 2,437 m: 67
914 to 1,523 m: 1,146 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Brazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (includes Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police (paramilitary)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 45,876,084 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 30,843,947 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 1,756,732 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $6.736 billion (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the boundary with Paraguay,
just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the Rio Parana,
has not been precisely delimited; two short sections of boundary with
Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)
area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the confluence
of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Illicit drugs: limited illicit producer of cannabis, minor coca
cultivation in the Amazon region, mostly used for domestic
consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to
control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian and
Colombian cocaine headed for the US and Europe
______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
Territory]

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Geography

Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
total: 60 sq km
land : 60 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Area - comparative: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia, largest
and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in central Indian
Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

@British Indian Ocean Territory:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors;
civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius
before construction of UK-US military facilities

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
conventional short form : none
abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK; administered by a
commissioner, resident in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in
London

National capital: none

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA 1994);
Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in the UK
cabinet: NA
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; commissioner and
administrator appointed by the queen

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a
palm tree and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
support the military installations are done by military and contract
employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity - capacity: NA kW
note : electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - production: NA kWh
note: electricity supplied by the US military

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only
domestic: NA
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA

@British Indian Ocean Territory:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: NA km
paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and airfield
on Diego Garcia
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by
Mauritius
______________________________________________________________________

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@British Virgin Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic
Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 150 sq km
land: 150 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note : includes the island of Anegada

Area - comparative: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures: 33%
forests and woodland: 7%
other : 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources
(except for a few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the
islands' water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto
Rico

@British Virgin Islands:People

Population: 13,368 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years : NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.32% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.13 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.03 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years : NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.99 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 72.83 years
male: 70.99 years
female: 74.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic groups: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God
7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 97.8% (1991 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@British Virgin Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor David MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995)
head of government : Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May
1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity
STOUTT)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from members of
the Legislative Council
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor
appointed by the queen; chief minister appointed by the governor from
among the members of the Legislative Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (13 seats; members
are elected by direct popular vote, 1 member from each of 9 electoral
districts, 4 at large members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 20 February 1995 (next to be held NA February
2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - VIP
6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court, one judge of the
Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the High
Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party or UP [Conrad MADURO];
Virgin Islands Party or VIP [Ralph T. O'NEAL]; Concerned Citizens
Movement or CCM [E. Walwyln BREWLEY]; Independent People's Movement or
IPM [Omar HODGE and Allen O'NEAL]

International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB,
ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate), UNESCO
(associate)

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either
side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the
Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began
offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial revenues.
The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late 1994, which
provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated statutory
gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is expected to make
the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to international
business. Livestock raising is the most important agricultural
activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food
requirements. Because of traditional close links with the US Virgin
Islands, the British Virgin Islands have used the dollar as their
currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $135 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $10,200 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 14%
services: 83% (1989)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force:
total: 4,911 (1980)
by occupation: tourism NA%

Unemployment rate: 3% (1995)

Budget:
revenues: $77.1 million
expenditures : $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports:
total value: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities : rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports:
total value: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Debt - external: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@British Virgin Islands:Communications

Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
domestic: NA
international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1995)

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@British Virgin Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 113 km (1995 est.)
paved: NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BRUNEI

@Brunei:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 5,770 sq km
land : 5,270 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries:
total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land : 1%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 85%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
rare

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
Ship Pollution, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia

@Brunei:People

Population: 307,616 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 33% (male 52,239; female 50,025)
15-64 years: 63% (male 101,326; female 90,941)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,207; female 5,878) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.5% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 25.2 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.13 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.23 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.54 years
male: 70 years
female: 73.16 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic groups: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.2%
male: 92.6%
female: 83.4% (1995 est.)

@Brunei:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Government type: constitutional sultanate

National capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1
January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri
Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5
October 1967); note - the sultan is both the chief of state and head
of government
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by
the sultan; deals with executive matters
note: there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the
sultan) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members
appointed by the sultan) that deals with constitutional matters, and
the Council of Succession (members appointed by the sultan) that
determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
elections: none; the sultan is a traditional Islamic monarch

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council or Majlis Masyuarat
Megeri (a privy council that serves only in a consultative capacity;
NA seats; members appointed by the sultan)
elections: last held in March 1962
note: in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree
of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being considered as
part of constitutional reform, but elections are unlikely for several
years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn in
by the sultan for three-year terms

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
(inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
Party (the first legal political party and now banned), Mohamad HATTA
bin Maji Zainal Abidin, secretary general; Brunei Peoples Party
(banned), Sheik A. M. AZAHARI, leader; Brunei National Democratic
Party or BNDP (deregistered), Haji Abdul LATIF bin Abdul Hamad,
president

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, CCC, ESCAP,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador-designate Pengiran Anak Dato Haji PUTEH
chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Glen Robert RASE
embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
Begawan
mailing address : American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP
96440
telephone: [673] (2) 229670
FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost
double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the
national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

Economy

Economy - overview: This small, wealthy economy is a mixture of
foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and
welfare measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally
supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from
the petroleum sector accounting for perhaps half of GDP. Per capita
GDP is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income
from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production.
The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food
and housing. The government is beginning to show progress on its basic
policy of diversifying the economy away from oil and gas. Brunei's
leaders are concerned that steadily increased integration in the world
economy will undermine internal social cohesion.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $15,800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 46%
services: 51% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the Army
by occupation: government 48%, production of oil, natural gas,
services, and construction 42%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4%,
other 6% (1986 est.)
note : 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $2.5 billion
expenditures : $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $768
million (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
construction

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 344,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 1.24 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,003 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water
buffalo, pigs

Exports:
total value : $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners: Japan 50%, UK 19%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 9% (1994 est.)

Imports:
total value: $2 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities : machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
food, chemicals
partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994
est.)

Debt - external: $0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4061 (January
1997), 1.4100 (1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993),
1.6290 (1992); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore
dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Brunei:Communications

Telephones: 76,900 (1993)

Telephone system: service throughout country is adequate for present
needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 115,000 (1993)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 78,000 (1993 est.)

@Brunei:Transportation

Railways:
total: 13 km (private line)
narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
total: 1,120 km
paved: 388 km
unpaved : 732 km (1995)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas
920 km

Ports and harbors: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria,
Tutong

Merchant marine:
total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
GRT/340,635 DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 85,327 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 49,466 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 3,014 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $312 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.2% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia and
the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone
that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly claimed the island
______________________________________________________________________

BULGARIA

@Bulgaria:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 110,910 sq km
land: 110,550 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
total: 1,808 km
border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable
land

Land use:
arable land: 37%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 35%
other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions;
rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents;
deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid
rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants
and industrial wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

@Bulgaria:People

Population: 8,290,988 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 17% (male 720,499; female 685,258)
15-64 years: 67% (male 2,769,288; female 2,823,431)
65 years and over: 16% (male 558,028; female 734,484) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.63% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.05 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.38 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.65 years
male: 68.06 years
female: 75.44 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Bulgarian(s)
adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian
2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 99%
female: 97% (1992 est.)

@Bulgaria:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv, Ruse, Sofiya,
Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system with Soviet law influence;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Petar STOYANOV (since 22 January 1997); Vice
President Todor KAVALDZHIEV (since 22 January 1997)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) Ivan Kostov (since 19 May 1997); Deputy Prime Ministers
Aleksandur BOZHKOV (since 12 February 1997 Evgeniy BAKURDZHIEV (since
21 May 1997), Veselin METODIEV (since 21 May 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 27 October and 3
November 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); chairman of the Council of
Ministers (prime minister) appointed by the president
election results: Petar STOYANOV elected president; percent of vote -
Petar STOYANOV 59.73%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sobranie
(240 seats; members are popularly elected to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 April 1997 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results : percent of vote by party - UDF 52%, BSP 22%, ANS
7%, Euro-left 5.5%, BBB 4.95%; seats by party - UDF 137, BSP 58, ANS
19, Euro-left 14, BBB 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year
term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or
elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP
[Georgi PURVANOV, chairman]; Union of Democratic Forces or UDF (an
alliance of pro-Democratic parties) [Ivan KOSTOV]; Euro-left
[Alexander TOMOV]; Alliance for National Salvation or ANS (coalition
led mainly by Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Ahmed DOGAN]);
Bulgarian Business Bloc or BBB [George GANCHEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Democratic Alliance for the
Republic or DAR; New Union for Democracy or NUD; Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party or
BCP; Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or KNSB;
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United or BZNS; Bulgarian
Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National Union;
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of Macedonian
Societies or IMRO-UMS; numerous regional, ethnic, and national
interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE,
CEI, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE,
PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMOT, UPU,
WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA
chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 387-7969
FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Avis T. BOHLEN (22 July 1996)
embassy : 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
mailing address: Embassy Sofia, Department of State, Washington, DC
50521-5740
telephone: [359] (2) 980-52-41 through 48
FAX: [359] (2) 981-89-77

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath
of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944 (liberation
from Nazi control)

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe,
Bulgaria has slowly continued the process of moving from its old
command economy towards a market-oriented economy. Slow advancement on
economic reforms pitched the economy into crisis in 1996, marked by a
banking system in turmoil, a depreciating currency, inflation of 311%
and contracting production and foreign trade. Foreign exchange
reserves dwindled to extremely low levels ($518 million), while
dramatically hiked interest rates added to the domestic debt burden
and stifled growth. GDP fell by 10% in 1996, after experiencing 2.6%
growth in 1995. Privatization of state-owned industries stagnated,
although the first auction of a mass privatization program was
undertaken in late 1996. Lagging progress on structural reforms led to
postponement of IMF disbursements under a $580 million standby loan
agreed to in July. In November 1996, the IMF proposed a currency board
as Bulgaria's best chance to restore confidence in the lev, eliminate
discretionary spending, and avoid hyperinflation. The government has
pledged to sell some of the country's most attractive state assets to
the highest foreign bidders in 1997. The Bulgarian economy is
projected to have another year of negative growth (minus 5%), and
inflation near 700% in 1997, assuming introduction of a currency board
in July of 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $39.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -10% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,630 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 12.6%
industry: 35.7%
services: 51.7% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 311% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.57 million (1996 est.)
by occupation : industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 12.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3 billion
expenditures : $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous
metals

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 12.09 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 36.07 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,491 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco;
livestock

Exports:
total value: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : machinery and equipment 12.8%; agriculture and food
21.9%; textiles and apparel 14%; metals and ores 19.7%; chemicals
16.9%; minerals and fuels 9.3% (1995)
partners: OECD 50.0% (EU 37.2%); CIS and Central and Eastern Europe
32.4%; Arab countries 5.8%; other 11.8% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $4.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 30.1%; machinery and
equipment 23.6%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products
10.8%; metals and ores 6.8%; chemicals 12.3%; other 4.8% (1995)
partners : OECD 45.5% (EU 38.1%); CIS and Central and Eastern European
countries 41.1%; Arab countries 1.8%; other 11.6% (1995)

Debt - external: $9.3 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: NA

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 483.4 (1996), 70.7 (1995), 54.2
(1994), 27.1 (1993), 23.3 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Bulgaria:Communications

Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential; 67%
of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.)
domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
most villages
international : direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth
stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat available
through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)

@Bulgaria:Transportation

Railways:
total : 4,292 km
standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
double track)
other gauge: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 36,777 km
paved: 33,798 km (including 314 km of expressways)
unpaved : 2,979 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural gas
1,400 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
total: 99 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,063,367 GRT/1,596,438
DWT
ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 25, chemical tanker 4, container 2, oil
tanker 12, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 1
note : Bulgaria owns an additional 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 151,855 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia and
Malta (1996 est.)

Airports: 355 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 116
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m : 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
under 914 m: 88 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 239
2,438 to 3,047 m : 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 226 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border
Troops, Internal Troops

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,052,731 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,711,729 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 62,908 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $418.6 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.0% to 2.5% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian
heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the
European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; significant
producer of amphetamines, much of which are consumed in the Middle
East
______________________________________________________________________

BURKINA FASO

@Burkina Faso:Geography

Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 274,200 sq km
land : 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 3,192 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west
and southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Black Volta River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 50%
other : 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts

Environment - current issues: recent droughts and desertification
severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution,
and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked

@Burkina Faso:People

Population: 10,891,159 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 48% (male 2,636,509; female 2,602,984)
15-64 years : 49% (male 2,515,266; female 2,799,542)
65 years and over: 3% (male 146,267; female 190,591) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.45% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 46.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 20.33 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 42.29 years
male: 42.45 years
female : 42.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.72 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic groups: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly Roman
Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to Sudanic
family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.2%
male: 29.5%
female: 9.2% (1995 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Government type: parliamentary

National capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houe, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
1987)
head of government: Prime Minister Kadre' De'sire' OUE'DRAOGO (since 6
February 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998); prime
minister appointed by the president with the consent of the
legislature
election results: Blaise COMPAORE elected president with 90.4% percent
of the votes of those who voted (the abstention rate was 74.7%)

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of People's Deputies or
Assemblee des Deputes Populaires (111 seats; members are popularly
elected to serve five-year terms)
elections : last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP
97, PDP 6, RDA 2, ADF 2; note - 4 contested seats are to be filled in
special election on 19 June 1997 by order of the Supreme Court
note: the current law also provides for a second consultative chamber,
which has not been formally constituted

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy -
Labor Movement or ODP-MT (ruling party at time of 1992 elections but
was subsumed, with about a dozen smaller parties, into the powerful
CDP in February 1996); African Democratic Assembly or RDA [Gerard
Kango OUEDRAOGO]; Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF [Herman
YAMEOGO]; Burkinabe Socialist Bloc or BSB [Earnest Nongma OUEDRAOGO,
president]; Burkinabe Environmentalist Party or UVDB; Congress for
Democracy and Progress or CDP [Din Salif SAWADAGO] (the strongest
party in the 1997 legislative elections); Front for Social Forces or
FFS [Fide'le KIENTEGA]; National Convention of Progressive
Patriots-Social Democratic Party or CNPP-PSD [Moussa BOLY] (not
prominent in 1997); Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Joseph
KI-ZERBO]; Party for Progress and Social Development or PPDS; Party
for African Independence or PAI

Political pressure groups and leaders: committees for the defense of
the revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON (16 July 1996)
embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725
FAX : [226] 303890

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
landlocked Burkina Faso has a high population density and a high
population growth rate, few natural resources, and a fragile soil.
Over 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture which
is highly vulnerable to variations in rainfall. Industry remains
dominated by unprofitable government-controlled corporations.
Following the African franc currency devaluation in January 1994 the
government updated its development program in conjunction with
international agencies, and exports and economic growth have
increased.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $740 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 25%
services: 44% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.8% (1995)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence agriculture)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services, and
government 5%
note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $483 million
expenditures : $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189
million (1992)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: 1% (1994)

Electricity - capacity: 121,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 320 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 28 kWh (1992 est.)

Agriculture - products: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum,
millet, corn, rice; livestock

Exports:
total value : $298 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: cotton, gold, animal products
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Italy, Thailand

Imports:
total value: $500 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : machinery, food products, petroleum
partners: Cote d'Ivoire, France, Togo, Nigeria

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (December 1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burkina Faso:Communications

Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair
domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
communication stations
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)

@Burkina Faso:Transportation

Railways:
total: 622 km (517 km from Ouagadougou to the Cote d'Ivoire border and
105 km from Ouagadougou to Kaya)
narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,506 km
paved : 2,001 km
unpaved: 10,505 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 22 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 10
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National
Police, People's Militia

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,219,544 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,137,882 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $104 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 6.4% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

BURMA

@Burma:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of
Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total : 678,500 sq km
land: 657,740 sq km
water: 20,760 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,876 km
border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
(southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
highest point : Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural
gas

Land use:
arable land : 15%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 1%
forests and woodland: 49%
other: 34% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of
air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment
contribute to disease

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test
Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping
lanes

@Burma:People

Population: 46,821,943 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 8,743,108; female 8,410,224)
15-64 years: 59% (male 13,878,541; female 13,859,783)
65 years and over : 4% (male 873,670; female 1,056,617) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 29.54 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.41 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 56.62 years
male: 54.89 years
female: 58.45 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.76 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective: Burmese

Ethnic groups: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%,
Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%),
Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.1%
male: 88.7%
female: 77.7% (1995 est.)

@Burma:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form: Burma
local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the US
Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of Myanmar)
local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Government type: military regime

National capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin) and 7
states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*, Bago*,
Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*, Mon State,
Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Law and Order
Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note - the
prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government : Prime Minister and Chairman of the State Law and
Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since 23 April 1992); note -
the prime minister is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Law and Order Restoration Council; military junta which
assumed power 18 September 1988
elections: none; the prime minister assumed power upon resignation of
the former prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly or Pyithu Hluttaw
(485 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 27 May 1990, but Assembly never convened
election results: percent of vote by party - NLD 82%; seats by party -
NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system in
place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the judiciary
is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
Association (USDA, proregime), THAN AUNG, general secretary; National
Unity Party (NUP, proregime), THA KYAW; National League for Democracy
(NLD), AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and eight minor legal
parties

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Coalition Government
of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by Dr. SEIN WIN - consists of
individuals legitimately elected to the People's Assembly but not
recognized by the military regime; the group fled to a border area and
joined with insurgents in December 1990 to form a parallel government;
Kachin Independence Army (KIA); United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen
National Union (KNU); several Shan factions, including the Mong Tai
Army (MTA); All Burma Student Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, ASEAN (observer), CCC,
CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU,
Mekong Group, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador TIN WINN
chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
FAX : [1] (202) 332-9046
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Kent M.
WIEDEMANN
embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
mailing address : Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone: [95] (1) 282055, 282182 (operator assistance required)
FAX: [95] (1) 280409

Flag description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
administrative divisions

Economy

Economy - overview: Burma has a mixed economy with private activity
dominant in agriculture, light industry, and transport, and with
substantial state-controlled activity, mainly in energy, heavy
industry, and the rice trade. Government policy in the last eight
years, 1989-96, has aimed at revitalizing the economy after three
decades of tight central planning. Thus, private activity has markedly
increased; foreign investment has been encouraged, so far with
moderate success; and efforts continue to increase the efficiency of
state enterprises. Published estimates of Burma's foreign trade are
greatly understated because of the volume of black-market trade. A
major ongoing problem is the failure to achieve monetary and fiscal
stability. Although Burma remains a poor Asian country, its rich
resources furnish the potential for substantial long-term increases in
income, exports, and living standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $51.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,120 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 63%
industry: 9%
services : 28% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 30%-40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 16.007 million (1992)
by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $5.3 billion
expenditures : $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $3
billion (1995 est.)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; construction materials;
pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 8.9% (FY94/95 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 1.21 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 3.37 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses;
hardwood

Exports:
total value: $1.1 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: rice, pulses and beans, teak, rubber, hardwood
partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia,
Japan

Imports:
total value : $2 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials,
food products, consumer goods
partners: Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, China, Malaysia, Thailand

Debt - external: $5.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 6.0600 (1997), 5.9176 (1996),
5.6670 (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992); unofficial
- 160-170 (1996)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Burma:Communications

Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service for business and government; international service is good
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.)
note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)

@Burma:Transportation

Railways:
total : 3,569 km
narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 27,600 km
paved: 3,340 km
unpaved : 24,260 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports and harbors: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein,
Myitkyina, Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 657,498 GRT/901,418 DWT
ships by type : bulk 16, cargo 18, chemical tanker 5, container 2, oil
tanker 5, passenger-cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, vehicle carrier 2
(1996 est.)

Airports: 73 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 54
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m : 9
under 914 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 16 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 12,037,009
females age 15-49: 11,846,381 (1997 est.)
note: both sexes liable for military service

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 6,434,452 (1997 est.)
females: 6,317,112 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 480,893
females: 462,314 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $135 million (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,560 metric
tons in 1996 - a 9% increase over 1995) and a minor producer of
cannabis for the international drug trade; surrender of drug warlord
KHUN SA's Mong Tai Army in January 1996 was hailed by Rangoon as a
major counternarcotics success, but lack of serious government
commitment and resources continue to hinder the overall antidrug
effort; growing role in the production of methamphetamines for
regional consumption
______________________________________________________________________

BURUNDI

Introduction

Current issues: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of
thousands of refugees have fled the ethnic violence between the Hutu
and Tutsi factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and
Democratic Republic of the Congo, formerly Zaire; since October 1996,
an estimated 92,000 Burundi Hutus who fled to Zaire have been forced
to return to Burundi by Tutsi rebel forces in Zaire, leaving an
estimated 35,000 still dispersed there; in Burundi, the ethnic
violence between the Hutus and the Tutsis continued in 1996, causing
an estimated additional 150,000 Burundi Hutus to flee to Tanzania,
thus raising their numbers in that country to about 250,000

@Burundi:Geography

Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,650 sq km
water: 2,180 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290
km, Tanzania 451 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation
(772 m to 2,760 m); average annual temperature varies with altitude
from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the
average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about
150 cm; wet seasons from February to May and September to November,
and dry seasons from June to August and December to January

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
arable land: 44%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures : 36%
forests and woodland: 3%
other : 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding, landslides

Environment - current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing
and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation
(little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees
for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Endangered Species
signed, but not ratified : Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
watershed

@Burundi:People

Population: 6,052,614 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 47% (male 1,425,071; female 1,418,957)
15-64 years : 50% (male 1,490,426; female 1,558,362)
65 years and over: 3% (male 63,225; female 96,573) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.11% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.33 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.12 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 100.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 49 years
male: 47.91 years
female : 50.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.48 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundi

Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%,
Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake
Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.3%
male: 49.3%
female: 22.5% (1995 est.)

@Burundi:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
local short form : Burundi

Data code: BY

Government type: republic

National capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba,
Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a plural
political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pierre BUYOYA (interim president since 27
September 1996) note - former President NTIBANTUNGANYA was overthrown
in a coup on 25 July 1996 and has taken refuge in the US ambassador's
residence in Bujumbura; former Major (retired) Pierre BUYOYA has not
been recognized as president of Burundi by the US or most other
governments
head of government: Prime Minister Pascal-Firmin NDIMIRA (since 31
July 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister
elections : NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (81 seats; members are popularly elected on a proportional
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 29 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA
21.4%; seats by party - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other
parties won too small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress or UPRONA
[Charles MUKASI, president]; Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Jean
MINANI, president]; Organization of the People of Burundi or RPB
[Sylvestre SINDAYIGAYA]; Socialist Party of Burundi or PSB; People's
Reconciliation Party or PRP [Mathias HITIMANA, leader]; opposition
parties, legalized in March 1992, include Burundi African Alliance for
the Salvation or ABASA, Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social
Development or RADDES [Cyrille SIGEJEJE, chairman], and Party for
National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber),
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Severin NTAHOMVUKIYE
chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Morris N. HUGHES, Jr. (27 June l996)
embassy : Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone : [257] (2) 23454
FAX: [257] (2) 22926

Flag description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
(top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
above, two stars below)

Economy

Economy - overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country in
an early stage of economic development. The economy is predominately
agricultural with roughly 90% of the population dependent on
subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on the coffee
crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange earnings. The ability
to pay for imports therefore rests largely on the vagaries of the
climate and the international coffee market. As part of its economic
reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with IMF and World Bank
support, Burundi is trying to diversify its agricultural exports,
attract foreign investment in industry, and modernize government
budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the nation has suffered from
massive ethnic-based violence which has resulted in the death of
perhaps 100,000 persons and the displacement of a million others.
Production continued to fall in 1996; foods, medicines, and
electricity are in extremely short supply. An impoverished and
disorganized government can hardly implement the needed reform
programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 56%
industry: 18%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 40% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 1.9 million
by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
commerce 1.5%, services 1.5% (1983 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $222 million
expenditures: $258 million, including capital expenditures of $92
million (1995 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 55,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 105 million kWh (1991)
note: imports some electricity from Democratic Republic of the Congo

Electricity - consumption per capita: 18 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet
potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); meat, milk, hides

Exports:
total value: $117 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides
partners : EU 60%, US 7%, Asia 1%

Imports:
total value: $234 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: capital goods 26%, petroleum products, foodstuffs,
consumer goods
partners: EU 47%, Asia 25%, US 6%

Debt - external: $1.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 268.13 (November
1995), 249.76 (1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992),
181.51 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Burundi:Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
and low-capacity microwave radio relay
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)

@Burundi:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 14,480 km
paved : 1,028 km
unpaved: 13,452 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports and harbors: Bujumbura

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 16 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,346,737 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 700,914 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 70,013 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $25 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.6% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CAMBODIA

@Cambodia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between
Thailand and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 181,040 sq km
land: 176,520 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
total : 2,572 km
border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season
(December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 11%
forests and woodland: 66%
other : 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
occasional droughts

Environment - current issues: logging activities throughout the
country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the
border with Thailand are resulting in habitat loss and declining
biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens
natural fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a
majority of the population does not have access to potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Marine Life Conservation,
Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
Mekong River and Tonle Sap

@Cambodia:People

Population: 11,163,861 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 45% (male 2,573,135; female 2,497,776)
15-64 years : 52% (male 2,668,089; female 3,084,009)
65 years and over: 3% (male 144,001; female 196,851) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.39 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.25 years
male: 48.79 years
female : 51.79 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic groups: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 35%
male: 48%
female : 22% (1990 est.)

@Cambodia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Government type: multiparty liberal democracy under a constitutional
monarchy established in September 1993

National capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (khett, singular and plural)
and 1 municipality* (krong, singular and plural); Banteay Mean Cheay,
Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum,
Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong, Keb*, Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Otdar Mean
Cheay, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu (Sihanoukville), Preah
Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab, Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng,
Takev

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince
Norodom RANARIDDH (since NA 1993) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
(since NA 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king
elections : none; the king is a constitutional monarch; prime
ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (120 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51, BLDP 10, MOLINAKA 1
note : the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which
became the National Assembly after the new constitution was
promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution has
not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet to be
defined by law

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC),
Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party or Cambodian
People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party
(BLDP), SON SANN faction; Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP),
IENG MOULY faction; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as the Khmer
Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Movement Pour La Liberation Nationale Khmere
(MOLINAKA), PROM NEAKAREACH; Khmer Nation Party (KNP), SAM RAINSY

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, ASEAN
(observer), CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ISO, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX : [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 426436, 426438
FAX: [855] (23) 426811

Flag description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor
Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by
decades of war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving
toward restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established
good working relations with international financial institutions.
Growth, starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-96. Despite
such positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces many tough
challenges because of the persistence of internal political divisions
and the related lack of confidence of foreign investors. Rural
Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer live, remains mired in
poverty. The almost total lack of basic infrastructure in the
countryside will hinder development and will contribute to a growing
imbalance in growth between urban and rural areas over the near term.
Moreover, the government's lack of experience in administering
economic and technical assistance programs and rampant corruption
among officials will slow the growth of critical public sector
investment. The decline of inflation from the 1992 rate of more than
50% is one of the bright spots.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $710 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 51%
industry: 14%
services: 35%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5% (1996 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
by occupation : agriculture 80% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $261 million
expenditures: $496 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1995 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 100,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 180 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Exports:
total value: $464 million (1996 est.)
commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame
partners : Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

Imports:
total value: $1.4 billion (1996 est.)
commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
machinery, motor vehicles
partners : Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

Debt - external: $1.9 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA
note: international donors pledged a total of $1.8 billion in 1995 and
1996

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,723.0 (January 1997), 2,624.1
(1996), 2,450.8 (1995), 2,545.3 (1994), 2,689.0 (1993), 1,266.6 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cambodia:Communications

Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government requirements
and virtually nonexistent for general public
domestic: NA
international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and
other adjacent countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
(Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5

Televisions: 70,000 (1993 est.)

@Cambodia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 603 km
narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total : 35,769 km
paved: 2,683 km
unpaved : 33,086 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282 km
navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports and harbors: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh
Kong, Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
total: 27 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 187,652 GRT/256,929 DWT
ships by type : bulk 4, cargo 20, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated
cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 7 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF) - created in 1993
by the merger of the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two
noncommunist resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the
Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF); Resistance forces - National Army
of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,418,916 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,348,065 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 97,361 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $160 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: offshore islands and sections of the
boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
not defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime
boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for Golden Triangle heroin en
route to West; possibly becoming money-laundering center; high-level
narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving government,
military, and police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and
amphetamine production; large producer of cannabis for the
international market
______________________________________________________________________

CAMEROON

@Cameroon:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 475,440 sq km
land: 469,440 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
total : 4,591 km
border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km,
Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 50 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid
and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau
in center, mountains in west, plains in north

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower
potential

Land use:
arable land: 13%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 78%
other : 3% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 210 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
gases

Environment - current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent;
deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa

@Cameroon:People

Population: 14,677,510 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 3,387,450; female 3,356,237)
15-64 years: 51% (male 3,712,809; female 3,736,245)
65 years and over: 3% (male 219,975; female 264,894) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.86% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.22 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.64 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 77.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 52.27 years
male: 51.22 years
female: 53.35 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.93 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cameroonian(s)
adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic groups: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%, Kirdi
11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%, other
African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
French (official)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 63.4%
male: 75%
female: 52.1% (1995 est.)

@Cameroon:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
conventional short form: Cameroon
former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Government type: unitary republic; multiparty presidential regime
(opposition parties legalized 1990)

National capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter Mafany MUSONGA (since 19
September 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 11 October 1992 (next to be held NA October 1997);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: President Paul BIYA reelected; percent of vote -
Paul BIYA 40%, SDF candidate John FRU NDI 36%, UNDP candidate Bello
Bouba MAIGARI 19%; note - election held amid widespread allegations of
fraud

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (180 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms; note - the president can either lengthen or
shorten the term of the legislature)
elections: last held 11 May 1997 (next to be held NA 2002)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
CDPM 109, SDF 43, UNDP 13, UDC 5, UPC-K 1, MDR 1, MLJC I; note - 7
contested seats will be filled in an election at a time to be set by
the Supreme Court

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
or CPDM (government-controlled and the only party until legalization
of opposition parties in 1990) [Paul BIYA, president]
major opposition parties: Cameroonian Democratic Union or UDC [Adamou
NDAM NJOYA]; Movement for the Defense of the Republic or MDR [Dakole
DAISSALA, leader]; National Union for Democracy and Progress or UNDP
[Maigari BELLO BOUBA, chairman]; Social Democratic Front or SDF [John
FRU NDI, leader]; Union of Cameroonian Populations or UPC [Ndeh
NTUMAZAH, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Alliance for Change or FAC;
Cameroon Anglophone Movement or CAM

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, C,
CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
chancery : 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
mailing address : B. P. 817, Yaounde; Pouch American Embassy DOS,
Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12
FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and
favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the
best-endowed primary commodity economies in sub-Saharan Africa. Still,
it faces many of the serious problems facing other underdeveloped
countries, such as political instability, a top-heavy civil service,
and a generally unfavorable climate for business enterprise. The
development of the oil sector led to rapid economic growth between
1970 and 1985. Growth came to an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by
steep declines in the prices of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and
petroleum. Export earnings were cut by almost one-third, and
inefficiencies in fiscal management were exposed. Since 1990, the
government has embarked on various IMF and World Bank programs
designed to spur business investment, increase efficiency in
agriculture, improve trade and recapitalize the nation's banks.
Political instability, following suspect elections in 1992, has
limited the effectiveness of aid programs. Currently, Cameroon
receives only minimal assistance from the IMF and the World Bank.
Although the 50% devaluation of the currency of 12 January 1994
improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement remains and is
the main barrier to economic improvement. The devaluation led to a
spurt in inflation to 48% in 1994, but it moderated in 1995-96.
Progress toward privatization of remaining state industry remains
slow.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $17.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,230 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 29%
industry: 25%
services: 46% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6% (FY96/97 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $2.23 billion
expenditures: $2.23 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY96/97 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing, light
consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 630,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 2.71 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 186 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas,
oilseed, grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, aluminum, cocoa
beans, coffee, cotton
partners: EU (particularly France) about 50%, African countries

Imports:
total value : $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer goods,
transport equipment, petroleum products
partners: EU (France 42%, Germany), African countries, US 4%

Debt - external: $8.2 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992), 282.11 (1991)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cameroon:Communications

Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: NA

@Cameroon:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,104 km
narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 34,300 km
paved : 4,288 km
unpaved: 30,012 km (1995)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports and harbors: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 44 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 12 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 22
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m : 15 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,211,508 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,623,228 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 156,208 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $102 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of international boundaries in
vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
to the International Court of Justice
______________________________________________________________________

CANADA

@Canada:Geography

Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
total: 9,976,140 sq km
land: 9,220,970 sq km
water: 755,170 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 3%
forests and woodland: 54%
other: 38% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 7,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle
to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a
result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North
American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow

Environment - current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting,
coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on
agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming
contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry
activities

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; nearly
90% of the population is concentrated within 161 km of the US/Canada
border

@Canada:People

Population: 30,337,334 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 20% (male 3,101,968; female 2,957,927)
15-64 years: 68% (male 10,333,085; female 10,201,996)
65 years and over: 12% (male 1,583,643; female 2,158,715) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.4 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.23 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 6.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population : 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.96 years
male: 75.61 years
female: 82.48 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%, other
European 20%, Amerindian 1.5%, other, mostly Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%, other
35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Canada:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Government type: confederation with parliamentary democracy

National capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*; Alberta,
British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Northwest
Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec,
Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
note: the Northwest Territories will be split in two as of April 1999;
the eastern section will be renamed Nunavut, the west is as yet
unnamed

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: 17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the
machinery of the government was set up in the British North America
Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC (since 8 February 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
1993)
cabinet : Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the
members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor general
appointed by the queen on the advice of the prime minister; following
legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the House
of Commons is automatically designated by the governor general to
become prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (a body whose members are appointed to serve until
reaching 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on the
advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators) and
the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (295 seats; note - number
of seats will rise to 301 at the time of the next election; members
elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 25 October 1993 (next to be
held by 3 November 1998)
election results: percent of votes by party - Liberal Party 41%,
Reform Party 19%, Tories 16%, Bloc Quebecois 14%, New Democratic Party
7%, other 3%; seats by party - Liberal Party 177, Bloc Quebecois 53,
Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 9, Progressive Conservative
Party 2, independents 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the prime
minister through the governor general

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party [Jean CHRETIEN]; Bloc
Quebecois [Michel GAUTHIER (until March 1997)]; Reform Party [Preston
MANNING]; New Democratic Party [Alexa MCDONOUGH]; Progressive
Conservative Party [Jean CHAREST]

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE
(observer), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G- 7, G-
8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD,
OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM,
UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general : Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
embassy : 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
mailing address: P. O. Box 866, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
telephone : [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, and
Vancouver

Flag description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
(double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the
white band

Economy

Economy - overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output,
market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since
World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and
service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the
1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1%
so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces high
unemployment - especially in Quebec and the Maritime Provinces - and a
large public sector debt. With its great natural resources, skilled
labor force, and modern capital plant, however, Canada will enjoy
better economic prospects in the future. The continuing constitutional
impasse between English- and French-speaking areas is raising the
possibility of a split in the confederation, making foreign investors
somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $721 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $25,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 3%
industry: 31%
services : 66% (1996)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 15.1 million (1996)
by occupation : services 74%, manufacturing 15%, agriculture 3%,
construction 5%, other 3% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% (December 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $94.3 billion
expenditures: $115.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7
billion (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood
and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 1.3% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 113.65 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 547.9 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 16,137 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries
provide annual catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is
exported

Exports:
total value: $195.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities : newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum,
machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts;
telecommunications equipment
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports:
total value: $169.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment and
parts
partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

Debt - external: $253 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.6 billion (1995)
note : ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3486 (January
1997), 1.3635 (1996), 1.37241 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993),
1.2087 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Canada:Communications

Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic : domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations -
5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik
(Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)

@Canada:Transportation

Railways:
total: 70,176 km; note - there are two major transcontinental freight
railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November 1995) and
Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
standard gauge: 70,000 km 1.435-m gauge (63 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 176 km 0.914-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 1.021 million km
paved: 358,371 km (including 19,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 662,629 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports and harbors: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Montreal,
New Westminister, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick),
Saint John's (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers,
Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 557,941 GRT/775,391 DWT
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 15,
passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
cargo 8, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes (1996
est.)

Airports: 1,139 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 816
over 3,047 m: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m : 138
914 to 1,523 m: 229
under 914 m: 417 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 323
1,524 to 2,437 m: 55
914 to 1,523 m: 268 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 17 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command
or LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(RCMP)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 8,160,914 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 7,007,901 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 208,138 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $9 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary disputes with the US
(Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal
Island); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary
dispute between Canada and France; in 1992 an arbitration panel
awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone area of 12,348 sq km to
settle the dispute

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market
______________________________________________________________________

CAPE VERDE

@Cape Verde:Geography

Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 4,030 sq km
land: 4,030 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very
erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point : Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic
ash used to produce hydraulic cement), limestone, kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 11%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 6%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 83% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
visibility; volcanically and seismically active

Environment - current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper
land use such as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to
soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in
deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened
several species of birds and reptiles; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental
Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa
near major north-south sea routes; important communications station;
important sea and air refueling site

@Cape Verde:People

Population: 393,943 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 46% (male 91,409; female 89,810)
15-64 years: 48% (male 87,868; female 100,948)
65 years and over: 6% (male 9,594; female 14,214) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 35.45 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 70.04 years
male: 66.76 years
female: 73.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West African
words

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.6%
male: 81.4%
female: 63.8% (1995 est.)

@Cape Verde:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Government type: republic

National capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22 March
1991)
head of government : Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
VEIGA (since 13 January 1991)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister from
among the members of the People's National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
2001); prime minister nominated by the People's National Assembly and
appointed by the president
election results: Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro elected president;
percent of vote - Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (independent) 80.1%

Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly or
Assembleia Nacional Popular (72 seats; members are elected by popular
vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
election results : percent of vote by party - MPD 59%, PAICV 28%, PCD
6%; seats by party - MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de
Justia

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy or MPD [Prime
Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman]; African Party for
Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
chairman]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [leader NA]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Santos SILVA CARLOS
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lawrence Neal BENEDICT (17 June 1996)
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 61 56 16
FAX : [238] 61 13 55

Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and
light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on
the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
blue bands

Economy

Economy - overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles
of long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for
almost 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in
rural areas, the share of agriculture in GNP is only 14%, of which
fishing accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The
fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited.
Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances
from emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to
GDP. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in
1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting
foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1997 depend
heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum
of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $472 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 14%
industry: 17%
services: 69% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.8% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA %

Budget:
revenues: $253.7 million
expenditures: $276 million (FY96/97 est.)

Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garments, ship repair, food
and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 17,000 kW

Electricity - production: 15 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes,
sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish

Exports:
total value: $10 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: fish, bananas, fuels, basic manufactures
partners: Netherlands, Portugal 50%, Angola, Spain, Singapore, UK

Imports:
total value : $211.8 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
transport equipment, fuels
partners : Portugal 45%, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Brazil, France,
Cote d'Ivoire

Debt - external: $170 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 84.770
(December 1996), 82.591 (1996), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994), 80.427
(1993), 68.018 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cape Verde:Communications

Telephones: 1,740 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system
international : 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Cape Verde:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : 1,100 km
paved: 858 km
unpaved: 242 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine:
total: 3 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,032 GRT/5,966 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes
Army and Navy), Security Service

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 78,622 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 44,870 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.4 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for illicit
drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

CAYMAN ISLANDS

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Cayman Islands:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly one-half of
the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total : 260 sq km
land: 260 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 8%
forests and woodland: 23%
other: 69% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)

Environment - current issues: no natural fresh water resources,
drinking water supplies must be met by rainwater catchment

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: important location between Cuba and Central America

@Cayman Islands:People

Population: 36,153 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.25% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 14.24 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 77.1 years
male: 75.37 years
female: 78.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Caymanian(s)
adjective : Caymanian

Ethnic groups: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of various
ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational), Anglican,
Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant denominations

Languages: English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 98% (1970 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland, South
Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
John OWEN (since 15 September 1995)
cabinet: Executive Council (three members appointed by the governor,
four members elected by the Legislative Assembly)
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the governor is
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (18 seats, 3
official members and 15 elected by popular vote; members serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 20 November 1996 (next to be held NA November
2000)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - National Team
coalition 9, independents 6

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk
centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a
pineapple and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the
three islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS

Economy

Economy - overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a
thriving offshore financial center; 28,000 foreign companies do
business with the 600 registered banks and trust companies; banking
assets exceed $500 billion. Tourism is also a mainstay, accounting for
about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency earnings. The tourist
industry is aimed at the luxury market and caters mainly to visitors
from North America. Total tourist arrivals exceeded one million
visitors in 1995 and again in 1996. About 90% of the islands' food and
consumer goods must be imported. The Caymanians enjoy one of the
highest outputs per capita and one of the highest standards of living
in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $860 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $23,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 1.4%
industry: 3.2%
services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 8,061
by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget:
revenues: $141.5 million
expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 71,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 7,487 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Exports:
total value : $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners : mostly US

Imports:
total value: $329 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

Debt - external: $15 million (1986)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (3 November
1995), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cayman Islands:Communications

Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)

@Cayman Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 406 km
paved: 304 km
unpaved : 102 km

Ports and harbors: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
total: 42 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 736,004 GRT/1,153,058 DWT
ships by type : bulk 5, cargo 10, chemical tanker 2, container 4, oil
tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 11, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, vehicle
carrier 1
note : a flag of convenience registry; Greece owns 7 ships, US 7, UK
5, India 1, Japan 1, Norway 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 1, and United
Arab Emirates 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: vulnerable to drug money-laundering and drug
transshipment
______________________________________________________________________

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

Introduction

Current issues: in 1996 the Central African Republic experienced three
mutinies by dissident elements of the armed forces which demanded back
pay as well as political and military reforms; continuing violence in
1997 between the government and rebel military and civilian groups
over pay issues, living conditions, and lack of opposition party
representation in the government has destroyed many businesses in the
capital, reducing tax revenues and exacerbating the government's
problems in meeting expenses

@Central African Republic:Geography

Location: Central Africa, north of Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 622,980 sq km
land: 622,980 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
total : 5,203 km
border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Democratic Republic
of the Congo 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in
northeast and southwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Oubangui River 335 m
highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 5%
forests and woodland: 75%
other: 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
areas; floods are common

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has
diminished its reputation as one of the last great wildlife refuges;
desertification; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

@Central African Republic:People

Population: 3,342,051 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 738,623; female 731,163)
15-64 years : 52% (male 858,386; female 894,695)
65 years and over: 4% (male 54,848; female 64,336) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.01% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 39.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.94 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 110.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 45.24 years
male: 44.4 years
female : 46.12 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.35 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Central African(s)
adjective: Central African

Ethnic groups: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%, Mboum 4%,
M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%,
Muslim 15%, other 11%
note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60%
male: 68.5%
female: 52.4% (1995 est.)

@Central African Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Central African Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form : Republique Centrafricaine
local short form: none
former: Central African Empire
abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Government type: republic;

National capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran,
Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto, Haute-Sangha,
Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of the
republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7 January
1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Michel GBEZERA-BRIA (since January
1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections : president elected by popular vote for a 6-year term;
election last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held October 1999);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ange PATASSE elected president; percent of vote -
PATASSE 52.45%, Abel GOUMBA 45.62%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (85 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 19 September 1993 (next to be held October 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MLPC
34, RDC 13, PLD 7, FPP 7, ADP 6, PSD 3, CN 3, MDREC 1, PRC 1, FC 1,
MESAN 1, independents supporting David DACKO 6, independents 2
note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
Council or Conseil Economique et Regional; when they sit together they
are called the Congress or Congres

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme, judges appointed by
the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress or
ADP [Tchapka BREDE]; Central African Democratic Assembly or RDC [Andre
KOLINGBA]; Central African Republican Party or PRC; Civic Forum or FC
[Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA]; Democratic Movement for the Renaissance and
Evolution of Central Africa or MDREC [Joseph BENDOUNGA]; Liberal
Democratic Party or PLD [Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON]; Movement for the
Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [the party of the
president, Ange Felix PATASSE]; Movement for Democracy and Development
or MDD [David DACKO]; National Convention or CN [David GALIAMBO];
Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Abel GOUMBA]; Social Democratic
Party or PSD [Enoch Derant LAKOUE]; Social Evolution Movement of Black
Africa or MESAN [Prosper LAVODRAMA and Joseph NGBANGADIBO]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC
(observer), UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801
FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN
embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
mailing address : B. P. 924, Bangui
telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10
FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy

Economy - overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with forestry,
remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African Republic
(CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in outlying areas.
The agricultural sector generates half of GDP. Timber has accounted
for about 16% of export earnings and the diamond industry for nearly
54%. Important constraints to economic development include the CAR's
landlocked position, a poor transportation system, a largely unskilled
work force, and a legacy of misdirected macroeconomic policies. The
50% devaluation of the currencies of 14 Francophone African nations on
12 January 1994 had mixed effects on the CAR's economy. Diamond,
timber, coffee, and cotton exports increased, leading an estimated
rise of GDP of 7% in 1994 and nearly 5% in 1995. Inflation, however,
remains a problem. Moreover, ongoing violence between the government
and rebel military and civilian groups over pay issues, living
conditions, and opposition party political representation has
destroyed many businesses in the capital, reducing tax revenues for
the government, and delaying negotiations for an IMF financial aid
agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 14%
services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 19.4% (1995)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $638 million
expenditures: $1.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $888
million (1994 est.)

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear,
assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 40,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 95 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 32 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca),
yams, millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports:
total value: $181 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities : diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
partners: France 16%, Belgium-Luxembourg 40.1%, Italy, Japan, US,
Spain, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo

Imports:
total value: $176 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical
equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods,
industrial products
partners: France 37%, other EU countries, Japan 24%, Algeria,
Cameroon, Namibia

Debt - external: $890 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Central African Republic:Communications

Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)

@Central African Republic:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 23,810 km
paved: 429 km
unpaved: 23,381 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports and harbors: Bangui, Nola

Airports: 43 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
under 914 m: 8 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard),
Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 755,441 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 393,765 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $30 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.3% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CHAD

Introduction

Historical perspective: After enduring decades of civil warfare among
ethnic groups as well as invasions by Libya, Chad got started toward a
more stable state with the seizure of the government in early December
1990 by former northern guerrilla leader Idress DEBY. His transitional
government eventually suppressed armed rebellion in all quarters of
the country, settled the territorial dispute with Libya on terms
favorable to Chad, produced a democratic constitution which was
ratified by popular referendum in March 1996, held multiparty national
presidential elections in June and July 1996 (DEBY won with 67% of the
vote), and held multiparty elections to the National Assembly in
January and February 1997, in which Idress DEBY's party, Patriotic
Salvation Movement or MPS, won a majority of the seats.

@Chad:Geography

Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1.284 million sq km
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of
California

Land boundaries:
total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in
northwest, lowlands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Djourab Depression 175 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under way),
uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
arable land: 3%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 36%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 35% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 140 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
periodic droughts; locust plagues

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water
pollution; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water
body in the Sahel

@Chad:People

Population: 7,166,023 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 44% (male 1,586,873; female 1,579,086)
15-64 years: 53% (male 1,854,645; female 1,931,519)
65 years and over: 3% (male 94,516; female 119,384) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.85 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.15 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.88 years
male: 45.49 years
female: 50.37 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian

Ethnic groups: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba), non-Muslims (Sara,
Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, Massa), nonindigenous
150,000 (of whom 1,000 are French)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango (in
south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic
total population: 48.1%
male : 62.1%
female: 34.7% (1995 est.)

@Chad:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form : Republique du Tchad
local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Government type: republic

National capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian customary
law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
head of government : Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April
1995); appointed by the president
cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the prime minister
elections: the constitution provides for the election of a president
by direct popular vote to serve a term of five years; if no candidate
receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving
the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 2
June and 11 July 1996 (next to be held NA 2001); the prime minister is
appointed by the president
election results: in the first round of voting none of the 15
candidates received the required 50% of the total vote; percent of
vote, first round - Lt. Gen. Idress DEBY 47.8 %; percent of vote,
second round - Lt. Gen. DEBY 69.1%, Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE 30.9%;
President DEBY reappointed Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (125 seats; members
serve four-year terms); replaces the Higher Transitional Council or
the Conseil Superieur de Transition
elections: National Assembly - last held in two rounds on 5 January
and 23 February 1997, (next to be held NA 2001); in the first round of
voting on 5 January 1997 some candidates won clear victories by
receiving 50% or more of the vote; where that did not happen, the two
highest scoring candidates stood for a second round of voting
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS
65, URD 29, UNDR 15, RDP 3, others 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts;
Magistrate Courts

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS
[Maldom Bada ABBAS, chairman], originally in opposition but now the
party in power and the party of the president; National Union for
Development and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO, leader]; Rally for
Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lal Mahamat CHOUA, leader]; Union for
Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE, leader];
note - in mid-1996 Chad had about 60 political parties, of which these
are the most prominent in the new National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David C. HALSTED
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address : B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33
FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a
quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the
flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: Unfavorable climate, geographic remoteness, poor
resource endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the
most underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by
political turmoil, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the
economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a
severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. About 85% of
the work force is involved in subsistence farming and fishing. Cotton
is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half of exports. Chad
is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food credits, given
chronic food shortages in several regions. Of all the Francophone
countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from the 50%
devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite an
increase in external financial aid and price increases for cotton -
the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt and enfeebled
government bureaucracy continues to postpone payment of public sector
salaries and to dampen economic enterprise by neglecting payments to
domestic suppliers. The devaluation resulted in stepped-up inflation
of 41% in 1994; inflation fell to 9% in 1995 but it remains high
compared with other Francophone countries. In one favorable
development, Chad in December 1996 concluded an agreement with
ESSO/Chad (EXXON) for drilling and extracting petroleum at Doba. Oil
will be piped through Cameroon for export.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $600 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 48%
industry: 18%
services : 34% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA
by occupation : agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $136 million
expenditures: $222 million, including capital expenditures of $107
million (1994 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
(sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 40,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 70 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports:
total value: $226 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles, fish
partners : Portugal 30%, Germany 18%, South Africa 16%, France 7%

Imports:
total value: $225 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles; note -
excludes military equipment
partners: France 34%, Cameroon 24%, Nigeria 7%, US 6%

Debt - external: $875 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF 100
per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chad:Communications

Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)
note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)

@Chad:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 32,700 km
paved: 262 km
unpaved : 32,438 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports and harbors: none

Airports: 46 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 17 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,603,194 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 830,777 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 65,906 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $74 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 11.1% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: demarcation of international boundaries in
the vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which has led to border
incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification by
Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
______________________________________________________________________

CHILE

@Chile:Geography

Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean
and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 756,950 sq km
land: 748,800 sq km
water: 8,150 sq km
note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 6,171 km
border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes
in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
metals, molybdenum

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 22%
other : 55% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis

Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial and
vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation
contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake
Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions

@Chile:People

Population: 14,508,158 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 2,057,633; female 2,031,588)
15-64 years: 65% (male 4,684,158; female 4,734,170)
65 years and over: 7% (male 416,047; female 584,562) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.18% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.53 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.73 years
male: 71.5 years
female: 77.95 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean

Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95%, Amerindian 3%, other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.2%
male : 95.4%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Chile:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Government type: republic

National capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular - region);
Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania,
Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los
Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region
Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30
July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government : President Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1999)
election results: Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle elected president; percent
of vote - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%, Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%,
other 17.6%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (46 seats, 38 elected by popular
vote; members serve eight-year terms - one half elected every four
years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held NA
December 1997); Chamber of Deputies - last held 11 December 1993 (next
to be held NA December 1997)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Coalition of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC 13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR
1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11, UDI 3, UCC 1),
right-wing independents 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by
party - Coalition of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS
12.01%, PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%), Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57%
(RN 15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats by party - Coalition of
Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15, UCC
2), right-wing independents 3; note - subsequent to the election, the
Radical Party (PR) became the Radical Social Democratic Party (PRSD)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are appointed
by the president, the president of the Supreme Court is elected by the
17-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy or
CPD consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Enrique
KRAUSS]; Socialist Party or PS [Camilo ESCALONA]; Party for Democracy
or PPD [Sergio BITAR]; Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD
[Anselmo SULE]; Union for the Progress of Chile or UPP consists mainly
of three parties: National Renewal or RN [Alberto ESPINA]; Independent
Democratic Union or UDI [Jovino NOVOA]; Center Center Union or UCC
[Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ]

Political pressure groups and leaders: revitalized university student
federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central or
CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU,
WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL Del Rios
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general : Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
mailing address : APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market
economy. Civilian governments - which took over from the military in
March 1990 - have continued to reduce the government's role in the
economy while shifting the emphasis of public spending toward social
programs. Growth in real GDP averaged more than 6.5% in 1991-1996, and
inflation is nearing a 40-year low. Chile's currency and foreign
reserves also are strong, as sustained foreign capital inflows -
driven in part by state privatizations - have more than offset
occasional current account deficits and public debt buybacks.
President FREI, who took office in March 1994, has placed improving
Chile's education system and developing foreign export markets at the
top of his economic agenda. Despite this progress, the Chilean economy
remains largely dependent on a few sectors - particularly copper
mining, fishing, and forestry. Success in meeting the government's
goal of sustained annual economic growth of 5% depends largely on
world prices for these commodities, continued foreign investor
confidence, and the government's ability to maintain a conservative
fiscal stance. In 1996, Chile became an associate member of Mercosur
and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with Canada.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $120.6 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $8,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 8%
industry: 33%
services: 59% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 6.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 5.5 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry and
commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining 2.3%,
construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $17 billion
expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996
est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron
and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 5.964 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 27.908 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,662 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets,
potatoes, fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6
million metric tons

Exports:
total value: $15.2 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: copper 37%, other metals and minerals 8.2%, wood products
7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1994)
partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value : $16.5 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7% (1994)
partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

Debt - external: $22.3 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $50.3 million (1996 est.)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 423.79 (January 1997),
412.27(1996), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Chile:Communications

Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
relay facilities
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
system with 3 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 179, FM 614, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)

@Chile:Transportation

Railways:
total: 6,782 km
broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total : 79,750 km
paved: 11,006 km
unpaved: 68,744 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas
320 km

Ports and harbors: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanaral, Coquimbo, Iquique,
Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano,
Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
total: 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 520,710 GRT/865,867 DWT
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, combination
ore/oil 1, container 2, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4,
passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 343 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 259
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m : 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 214 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 84
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 71 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval
Air, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros
of Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,867,676 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 2,874,235 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 125,586 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.8 billion (1997); note -
includes earnings from CODELCO Company; may exclude costs of pensions
and internal security

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.5% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: short section of the southern boundary with
Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign corridor to
the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights; territorial
claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps
Argentine and British claims

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined for
the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive to
traffickers seeking to launder drug profits
______________________________________________________________________

CHINA

(also see separate Taiwan entry) 

@China:Geography

Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
total: 9,596,960 sq km
land : 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 22,143.34 km
border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416
km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km,
Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia
(northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow
Sea
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
deltas, and hills in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin, tungsten,
antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead,
zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
arable land: 10%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 43%
forests and woodland: 14%
other : 33% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 498,720 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern
and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts

Environment - current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use
of high-sulfur coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging
forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country,
particularly in urban areas; future growth in water usage threatens to
outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much of
the population does not have access to potable water; less than 10% of
sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth
of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic
development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,
Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : Desertification

Geography - note: world's fourth-largest country (after Russia,
Canada, and US)

@China:People

Population: 1,221,591,778 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 26% (male 166,319,939; female 150,125,798)
15-64 years: 68% (male 427,340,489; female 393,914,502)
65 years and over: 6% (male 36,201,623; female 41,689,427) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.93% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 16.52 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.87 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.11 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 37.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.98 years
male: 68.61 years
female: 71.5 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese

Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan,
Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
(est.)
note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou),
Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority
languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 81.5%
male: 89.9%
female: 72.7% (1995 est.)

@China:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhong Guo
abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5
autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Fujian,
Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang,
Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*,
Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan,
Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang
note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221
BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February
1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are
being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial
law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993)
head of government: Premier LI Peng (acting premier since 24 November
1987, premier since 9 April 1988); Vice Premiers ZHU Rongji (since 8
April 1991), ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991), QIAN Qichen (since 29
March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU Bangguo (since 17 March
1995), and JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March 1995)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
(NPC)
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
People's Congress for five-year terms; election last held 27 March
1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); premier and vice premiers
nominated by the president, confirmed by the National People's
Congress
election results: JIANG Zemin elected by the Eighth National People's
Congress; percent of National People's Congress vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,977 seats; members indirectly elected at
county or xian level to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG
Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee; eight registered
small parties controlled by CCP

Political pressure groups and leaders: no meaningful political
opposition groups exist

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, BIS
(pending member), CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM
(observer), PCA, UN, UN Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR,
UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
(applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu
chancery : 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER
embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 6532-3831
FAX : [86] (10) 6532-6422
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

Economy

Economy - overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has
been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style centrally
planned economy to one that is more market-oriented but still within a
rigid political framework of Communist Party control. To this end the
authorities switched to a system of household responsibility in
agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the
authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted
a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light
manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and
investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978.
Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and industry also posted
major gains, especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong and opposite
Taiwan, where foreign investment helped spur output of both domestic
and export goods. On the darker side, the leadership has often
experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals. In 1992-96 annual growth
of GDP accelerated, particularly in the coastal areas - averaging more
than 10% annually according to official figures. In late 1993 China's
leadership approved additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still
more play to market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the
center's control over the financial system; state enterprises would
continue to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a
socialist market economy." In 1995-96 inflation dropped sharply,
reflecting tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control
food prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
vigorous expansion of the economy and many of which have been losing
the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 60 to 100 million
surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities,
many subsisting through part-time low-paying jobs. Popular resistance,
changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have
weakened China's population control program, which is essential to
maintaining growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to
continued rapid economic growth is the deterioration in the
environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall
of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose
arable land because of erosion and economic development; furthermore,
the regime gives insufficient priority to agricultural research. The
next few years will witness increasing tensions between a highly
centralized political system and an increasingly decentralized
economic system. Rapid economic growth likely will continue but at a
declining rate.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.39 trillion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1995 with use of official
Chinese growth figure for 1996; the result may overstate China's GDP
by as much as 25%)

GDP - real growth rate: 9.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,800 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 49%
services : 31% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 614.7 million (1994)
by occupation: agriculture and forestry 54%, industry and commerce
26%, construction and mining 7%, social services 6%, other 7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: officially 3% in urban areas; probably 8%-10%;
substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas (1996
est.)

Budget:
revenues : $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 210 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 859 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 684 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea,
millet, barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other
livestock products; fish

Exports:
total value : $151.07 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: clothing, miscellaneous consumer goods, fabrics,
footwear, toys, electrical machinery and switchgear (1995)
partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, South Korea, Germany, Singapore (1995)

Imports:
total value : $138.83 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: plastics, fabrics, telecommunications equipment,
electrical machinery and switchgear, transistors, other industrial
machinery (1995)
partners: Japan, US, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Germany, Russia
(1995)

Debt - external: $92 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan () = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan () per US$1 - 8.2963 (January 1997), 8.3142
(1996), 8.3514 (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992)
note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes the
midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year

@China:Communications

Telephones: 20 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are increasingly
available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves
principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships
domestic: telephone lines are being expanded to 100 million by 1996;
interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems
have been installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth
stations is in place
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and 1
Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international
fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million

@China:Transportation

Railways:
total : 62,500 km (including 5,400 km of provincial "local" rails)
standard gauge: 58,900 km 1.435-m gauge (9,700 km electrified; 18,100
km double track)
narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.750-m gauge local industrial lines (1996
est.)

Highways:
total: 1.117 million km
paved: 239,500 km
unpaved: 877,500 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 110,600 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km; natural
gas 6,200 km (1990)

Ports and harbors: Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Haikou, Lianyungang,
Nanjing, Nantong, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shantou,
Tianjin, Xiamen, Yantain, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
total: 1,736 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,749,069
GRT/25,196,607 DWT
ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 325, cargo 883, chemical tanker
16, combination bulk 11, container 109, liquefied gas tanker 9,
multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 232, passenger 6,
passenger-cargo 47, refrigerated cargo 24, roll-on/roll-off cargo 22,
short-sea passenger 43, specialized tanker 1
note: China owns an additional 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
8,754,413 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Hong Kong,
Malta, Liberia, Vanuatu, Cyprus, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Marshall Islands, and Singapore (1996 est.)

Airports: 206 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 192
over 3,047 m: 18
2,438 to 3,047 m: 65
1,524 to 2,437 m: 90
914 to 1,523 m : 13
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air Force,
Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force), People's Armed
Police (internal security troops, nominally subordinate to Ministry of
Public Security, but included by the Chinese as part of the "armed
forces" and considered to be an adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 356,848,321 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 196,780,527 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 9,872,055 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: the officially announced but
suspect figure is 70.2 billion yuan (1995 est.); note - conversion of
the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate
could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: boundary with India in dispute; disputed
sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary
with Tajikistan in dispute; short section of the boundary with North
Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai), as does Taiwan

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the
Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem
______________________________________________________________________

CHRISTMAS ISLAND

(territory of Australia) 

@Christmas Island:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland : NA%
other: 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

@Christmas Island:People

Population: 743 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -8.98% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic groups: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%, no
indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20% (1991)

Languages: English

@Christmas Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form : Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Dependency status: territory of Australia

Government type: NA

National capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia
and Australian law

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government : Administrator (vacant); Official Secretary
Merrilyn CHILVERS (since NA) is serving as acting administrator
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9
seats; members elected by popular vote to serve one-year terms)
elections: last held NA December 1996 (next to be held NA December
1997)
election results : percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
closed the mine. In 1990, the mine was reopened by private operators.
Australian-based Casinos Austria International Ltd. built a $45
million casino on Christmas Island.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: NA
by occupation: tourism 400 people, mining 100 people

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: NA

Exports: $NA
commodities: phosphate
partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA
commodities : consumer goods
partners: principally Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2735 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Christmas Island:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : NA
note: external telephone and telex services are provided by INTELSAT
satellite

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)

@Christmas Island:Transportation

Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
total: NA km
paved : NA km
unpaved: NA km

Ports and harbors: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CLIPPERTON ISLAND

(possession of France) 

@Clipperton Island:Geography

Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km
southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
total: 7 sq km
land : 7 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, rains
May-October

Terrain: coral atoll

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : Rocher Clipperton 29 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops : 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: subject to tornadoes

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: reef about 8 km in circumference

@Clipperton Island:People

Population: uninhabited

@Clipperton Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Clipperton Island
local long form: none
local short form : Ile Clipperton
former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by France from
French Polynesia by a high commissioner of the Republic

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing
station.

@Clipperton Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

(territory of Australia) 

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Geography

Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
total: 14 sq km
land: 14 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note : includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Area - comparative: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about nine
months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 100% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year

Environment - current issues: fresh water resources are limited to
rainwater accumulations in natural underground reservoirs

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified : NA

Geography - note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms
and other vegetation

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:People

Population: 617 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years : NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Cocos Islander(s)
adjective : Cocos Islander

Ethnic groups: Europeans, Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English, Malay

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Dependency status: territory of Australia

Government type: NA

National capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Australian governor general
head of government : Administrator (acting) Jarl ANDERSSON (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; administrator
appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire Council
(NA seats)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the
sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners.
Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but
additional food and most other necessities must be imported from
Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry : NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force: NA
note: the Cocos Islands Cooperative Society Ltd. employs construction
workers, stevedores, and lighterage worker operations; tourism employs
others

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures : $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products and tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA
commodities: copra
partners: Australia

Imports: $NA
commodities: foodstuffs
partners: Australia

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.2835 (January
1997), 1.2773 (1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993),
1.3600 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
Australia and elsewhere via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA
type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA

@Cocos (Keeling) Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total : NA km
paved: NA km
unpaved : NA km

Ports and harbors: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 1

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

COLOMBIA

@Colombia:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
water: 100,210 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank

Area - comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 7,408 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru
2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448
km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
Mountains, eastern lowland plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
arable land: 4%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures : 39%
forests and woodland: 48%
other: 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse
of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
emissions

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

Geography - note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

@Colombia:People

Population: 37,418,290 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 31% (male 5,959,141; female 5,816,751)
15-64 years: 64% (male 11,756,893; female 12,146,103)
65 years and over: 5% (male 769,724; female 969,678) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.61% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 20.78 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.62 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.14 years
male: 70.28 years
female : 76.09 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.31 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian

Ethnic groups: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed
black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)

@Colombia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
local short form : Colombia

Data code: CO

Government type: republic; executive branch dominates government
structure

National capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas,
Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta,
Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia,
Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de
Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia,
Santa Fe de Bogota*, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca,
Vaupes, Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after
US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER Pizano (since 7 August
1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet
elections : president elected by popular vote for a four-year term;
election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held May 1998); vice
president elected by popular vote for a four-year term in a new
procedure that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents
by newly elected presidents
election results : Ernesto SAMPER Pizano elected president; percent of
vote - no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote,
therefore, a run-off election to select a president from the two
leading candidates was held 19 June 1994; percent of vote - Ernesto
SAMPER Pizano (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango
(Conservative Party) 48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE
Lombana elected vice president; percent of vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the
Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de
Representantes (161 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held March
1998); House of Representatives - last held 13 March 1994 (next to be
held March 1998)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF)
31, other 12; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party -
NA; seats by party - Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC,
MSN, and NDF) 53, AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justical),
highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from the nominees
of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms; Council of
State, highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from
the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
Constitutional Court, guards integrity and supremacy of the
constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the
constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party or PL [Emilio LEBOLO
Castellanos]; Conservative Party or PC [Fabio VALENCIA Cossio]; New
Democratic Force or NDF [Andres PASTRANA Arango]; Democratic Alliance
M-19 or AD/M-19 is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal political
party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and
Colombian Communist Party (PCC); National Salvation Movement or MSN
[Dr. Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado]

Political pressure groups and leaders: two largest insurgent groups
active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC;
and National Liberation Army or ELN

International organization participation: AG, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-
3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Juan Carlos ESGUERRA Portocarrero
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Myles R. R. FRECHETTE
embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, No. 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
mailing address : APO AA 34038
telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top,
double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is
longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the
center

Economy

Economy - overview: Boasting a diversified and stable economy,
Colombia has enjoyed Latin America's most consistent record of growth
over the last several decades. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has
expanded every year for more than 25 years, and unlike many other
Latin American countries, Colombia did not default on any of its
official debts during the "lost decade" of the 1980s. Since 1990, when
Bogota introduced a comprehensive reform program that opened the
economy to foreign trade and investment, GDP growth has averaged more
than 4% annually. Growth has been fueled in recent years by the rapid
expansion of the oil sector, progress in the construction and
financial service industries, and an influx of foreign capital. Direct
foreign investment, especially in the oil industry, is rising at a
rapid rate. In 1996, oil overtook coffee as Colombia's main export.
Non-petroleum economic growth slowed, however, due mostly to high
interest rates - the result of high government spending and a tight
monetary policy - and a real appreciation of the exchange rate.
Business confidence was also damaged by a political crisis stemming
from allegations President SAMPER solicited contributions from drug
traffickers during the 1994 campaign. The slowdown in the growth of
labor-intensive industries such as manufacturing has caused
unemployment to rise to 11.5% by the end of 1996 and interfered with
President SAMPER'S plans to lower the country's poverty rate, which
has remained at about 40% despite the expanding economy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $201.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.1% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,400 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 20%
industry: 27%
services: 53% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 21.6% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 12 million (1990)
by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 11.5% (yearend 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $27 billion
expenditures: $30 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1997
est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 10,583,700 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 45.361 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 963 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco,
corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products;
shrimp farming

Exports:
total value: $10.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners : US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports:
total value: $12.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer
goods, chemicals, paper products
partners : US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7%
(1992)

Debt - external: $16.5 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $30 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 1,027.87 (January
1997), 1,036.69 (1996), 912.83 (1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993),
759.28 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Colombia:Communications

Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite
system with 11 earth stations
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 413 (licensed), FM 217 (licensed),
shortwave 28

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)

@Colombia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 3,386 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to
maritime port at Bahia Portete)
narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (1830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
total: 106,600 km
paved: 12,685 km
unpaved : 93,915 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural
gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports and harbors: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia,
Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:
total: 17 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 72,388 GRT/97,576 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 6, container 1, multi-function large load
carrier 2, oil tanker 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 913 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 606
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m : 32
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 527 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 307
2,438 to 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 272 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 10,285,806 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 6,909,846 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 348,802 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.8% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in
the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over
Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and cannabis;
about 50,900 hectares of coca under cultivation in 1995; the world's
largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of
cocaine to the US and other international drug markets; active aerial
eradication program seeks to virtually eliminate coca and opium crops
______________________________________________________________________

COMOROS

Introduction

Historical perspective: Comoros has had difficulty in achieving
political stability, having endured 18 coups or attempted coups since
receiving independence from France in 1975.

@Comoros:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique Channel,
about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and northern
Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 2,170 sq km
land: 2,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than 12 times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low
hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: 35%
permanent crops: 10%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland : 18%
other: 30% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season
(December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active
volcano

Environment - current issues: soil degradation and erosion results
from crop cultivation on slopes without proper terracing;
deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
Channel

@Comoros:People

Population: 528,893 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42% (male 112,404; female 111,936)
15-64 years: 55% (male 142,604; female 146,382)
65 years and over : 3% (male 7,432; female 8,135) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.09% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 40.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.82 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 87.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 59.88 years
male : 57.52 years
female: 62.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.54 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Comoran(s)
adjective: Comoran

Ethnic groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend of
Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.3%
male: 64.2%
female: 50.4% (1995 est.)

@Comoros:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
conventional short form: Comoros
local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Government type: independent republic

National capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja),
Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March
1996)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed ABDOU (since 27 December
1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term;
election last held 16 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2001);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim elected president; share of
vote - 64%

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (15
seats; members selected by regional councils for six-year terms) and a
Federal Assembly or Assemblee Federale (43 seats; members elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 1 and 8 December 1996 (next to be held NA
December 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RND
39, RND candidate running as independent 1, FNJ 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme), two members are
appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal
Assembly, one by the Council of each island, and former presidents of
the republic

Political parties and leaders: Rassemblement National pour le
Development or RND [Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim], party of the government;
Front National pour la Justice or FNJ, Islamic party in opposition
note: under a new constitution ratified in October 1996, a two party
system was established; President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim called for
all parties to dissolve and join him in creating the RND; the
Constitution stipulates that only parties that win six seats in the
Federal Assembly (two from each island) are permitted to be in
opposition, but if no party accomplishes that the second most
successful party will be in opposition; in the elections of December
1996 the FNJ appeared to qualify as opposition

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL, CCC,
ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant) Charge d'Affaires ad interim
Mahmoud M. ABOUD (ambassador to the US and Canada)
chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal and
Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East 45th
Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010
FAX : [1] (212) 983-4712

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the
four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France,
but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is
described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is
made up of three islands that have inadequate transportation links, a
young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources.
The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a
subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a heavy
dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance. Agriculture,
including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the leading sector of the
economy. It contributes nearly 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor
force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not
self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main staple, accounts
for the bulk of imports. The government is struggling to upgrade
education and technical training, to privatize commercial and
industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify
exports, to promote tourism, and to reduce the high population growth
rate. Continued foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual
GDP growth is to be reached in the late 1990s.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $370 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -2.3% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $650 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 39%
industry: 13%
services : 48% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total : 140,000 (1982)
by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $83 million
expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32
million (1992)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 16,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 25 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 52 kWh (1991 est.)

Agriculture - products: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra,
coconuts, bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports:
total value: $11.2 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
partners: France 54%, Germany 18%, US 18%

Imports:
total value: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, consumer goods; petroleum
products, cement, transport equipment
partners: France 60%, South Africa 10%, Kenya 5%, Singapore 4%

Debt - external: $189 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 406.27 (January 1997),
383.66 (1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to 75
per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been fixed
since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Comoros:Communications

Telephones: 3,770 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
radiotelephone communication stations
domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 200 (1991 est.)

@Comoros:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 875 km
paved: 669 km
unpaved : 206 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudu

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 4 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Comoran Security Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 125,378 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 74,836 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claims French-administered Mayotte
______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
Republic of the]

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Geography

Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 2,345,410 sq km
land: 2,267,600 sq km
water : 77,810 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

Land boundaries:
total : 10,271 km
border countries: Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km, Central African
Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km,
Sudan 628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone : boundaries with neighbors
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and
drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Margherita Peak (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, petroleum, industrial and
gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land : 3%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 77%
other: 13% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations;
water pollution; deforestation; refugees who arrived in mid-1994 were
responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife
poaching in the eastern part of the country (most of those refugees
were repatriated in November and December 1996)

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Tropical Timber 94

Geography - note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land that
controls the lower Congo river and is only outlet to South Atlantic
Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern
highlands

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:People

Population: 47,440,362 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 48% (male 11,418,713; female 11,378,403)
15-64 years: 49% (male 11,412,269; female 11,980,993)
65 years and over: 3% (male 541,435; female 708,549) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.34% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 47.66 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 16.61 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: in 1994, about a million refugees fled into Democratic Republic
of the Congo, formerly Zaire, to escape the fighting between the Hutus
and the Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi; the outbreak of widespread
fighting between rebels and government forces in October 1996 spurred
about 720,000 refugees to return to Rwanda in late 1996 and early
1997; additionally, Democratic Republic of the Congo is host to about
100,000 Angolan, and about 100,000 Sudanese refugees

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 47.03 years
male: 45.16 years
female: 48.95 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.58 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority
are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu),
and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim
10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade
language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo,
Tshiluba

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write in French, Lingala,
Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 77.3%
male: 86.6%
female: 67.7% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: none
local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo
local short form: none
former : Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire

Data code: CG

Government type: republic with a strong presidential system

National capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular - region) and
1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu,
Shaba, Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic), 24
November (1965)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February
1978, amended April 1990; transitional constitution promulgated in
April 1994; new draft constitution approved by Transitional Parliament
in October 1996, subject to ratification by popular referendum
scheduled for February 1997; draft constitution provides for
multiparty elections by July 1997

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: Gen. Laurent-DESIRE KABILA (since 17 May 1997); note -
the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: Gen. Laurent-DESIRE KABILA (since 17 May 1997);
note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet : National Executive Council normally appointed by mutual
agreement of the president and the prime minister; note - Gen.
KABILA's cabinet was appointed by him and has no prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 29 July 1984 (next was to be held in May 1997);
prime minister elected by the High Council of the Republic; note - the
term of the former government expired in 1991, elections were not
held, and MOBUTU continued in office until his government was
militarily defeated by Gen. Laurent-DESIRE KABILA on 17 May 1997
election results: MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga reelected
president in 1984 without opposition
note: Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa Za Banga was president
from 24 November 1965 until forced into exile on 17 May 1997 when his
government was overturned in a coup by Gen. Laurent-DESIRE KABILA, who
immediately assumed sole governing authority

Legislative branch: unicameral parliament consisting of the combined
High Council of the Republic and the Parliament of the Transition (739
seats)
elections: the country's first multi-party presidential and
legislative elections had been scheduled for May 1997 but were not
held; instead the MOBUTO government was overthrown and control of the
governing apparatus was seized by Gen. Laurent-DESIRE KABILA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January 1991 -
Popular Movement of the Revolution or MPR; other parties include Union
for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI wa
Mulumba]; Democratic Social Christian Party or PDSC; Union of
Federalists and Independent Republicans or UFER; Unified Lumumbast
Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA]; Union of Independent Democrats or UDI
[Leon KENGO wa Dondo]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC,
CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
NAM, OAU, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Charge d'Affaires ad interim Etienne B. J. K.
MUKENDI
chancery: 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690, 7691
FAX: [1] (202) 686-3631

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON
embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa
mailing address: Unit 31550, APO AE 09828
telephone: [243] (12) 21533 through 21535
FAX: [243] (88) 43805, ext. 2308 or 43467

Flag description: light blue with a large yellow five-pointed star in
the center and a columnar arrangement of six small yellow five-pointed
stars along the hoist side

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy of Democratic Republic of the Congo
has continued to disintegrate, although former Prime Minister KENGO
had had some success in slowing the rate of economic decline. While
meaningful economic figures are difficult to come by, the high rate of
inflation, chronic large government deficits, and plunging mineral
production have made it one of the world's poorest countries. Most
formal transactions are conducted in hard currency as indigenous bank
notes have lost almost all value, and a barter economy now flourishes
in all but the largest cities. During the bitter civil strive of
1996-97 most individuals and families have hung on grimly through
subsistence farming and petty trade. The new KABILA government will be
hard pressed to meet its financial obligations to the IMF or to put in
place the financial measures advocated by it. Improved political
stability would boost the country's long-term potential to effectively
exploit its vast mineral and agricultural resources.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $400 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 59%
industry: 15%
services: 26% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 542% (1995)

Labor force:
total: 14.51 million (1993 est.)
by occupation : agriculture 65%, industry 16%, services 19% (1991
est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $479 million
expenditures : $479 million, including capital expenditures of $99
million (1996 est.)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including
textiles, footwear, cigarettes, processed foods and beverages),
cement, diamonds

Industrial production growth rate: NA

Electricity - capacity: 2.83 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 5.48 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 87 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, quinine,
cassava (tapioca), palm oil, bananas, root crops, corn, fruits; wood
products

Exports:
total value : $1.47 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: diamonds, copper, coffee, cobalt, crude oil
partners: Belgium, US, France, Germany, Italy, UK, Japan, South Africa

Imports:
total value: $1.25 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
commodities : consumer goods, foodstuffs, mining and other machinery,
transport equipment, fuels
partners: Belgium, South Africa, US, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK

Debt - external: $13.8 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: new zaires (Z) per US$1 - 83,764 (October 1996), 7,024
(1995), 1,194 (1994), 3 (1993); zaire (Z) per US$1 - 645,549 (1992)
note: on 22 October 1993 the new zaire, equal to 3,000,000 old zaires,
was introduced

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Communications

Telephones: 34,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic : barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in
and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth
stations
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 10, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.87 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 55,000 (1992 est.)

@Congo, Democratic Republic of the:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,138 km (1995); note - severely reduced trackage in use
because of civil strife
narrow gauge: 3,987 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km
1.000-m gauge; 1,026 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
total : 145,000 km
paved: 2,500 km
unpaved: 142,500 km (1993 est.)

Waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes

Pipelines: petroleum products 390 km

Ports and harbors: Banana, Boma, Bukavu, Bumba, Goma, Kalemie, Kindu,
Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 216 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 104
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m : 80 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 94 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie,
paramilitary Civil Guard, Special Presidential Division

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 10,232,612 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 5,213,941 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $46 million (1990)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1990)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Democratic Republic of the
Congo-Tanzania-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it has been informally reported that the indefinite
section of the Democratic Republic of the Congo-Zambia boundary has
been settled; long section with Republic of the Congo along the Congo
river is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been
made)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption
______________________________________________________________________

CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

@Congo, Republic of the:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between
Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 342,000 sq km
land: 341,500 sq km
water: 500 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total: 5,504 km
border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
Republic 467 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Gabon
1,903 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to
October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
basin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 29%
forests and woodland: 62%
other: 9% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: seasonal flooding

Environment - current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions;
water pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not
potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

@Congo, Republic of the:People

Population: 2,583,198 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 557,996; female 552,022)
15-64 years: 54% (male 677,313; female 707,569)
65 years and over: 3% (male 35,573; female 52,725) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.15% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 38.79 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 45.73 years
male: 44.24 years
female: 47.27 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic groups: Kongo 48%, Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%, Teke 17%, Europeans
8,500 (mostly French)

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), African languages (Lingala and Kikongo
are the most widely used)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.9%
male: 83.1%
female : 67.2% (1995 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
conventional short form: none
local long form : Republique du Congo
local short form: none
former: Congo/Brazzaville, Congo

Data code: CF

Government type: republic

National capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1
commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala,
Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister David Charles GANAO (since 2
September 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections : president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 16 August 1992 (next was to be held 27 July 1997
but armed clashes between political parties in early July seemed
likely to delay it); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Pascal LISSOUBA elected president; percent of vote -
Pascal LISSOUBA 61%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the National
Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (125 seats; members are elected by
direct popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Senate (60
seats; members are elected by local and regional councils to serve
six-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 1993 (next to be
held NA 1998); Senate - last held November 1996 (next to be held NA
2002)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3; Senate - percent of
vote by party - NA; seats by party - UPADS 23, MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS
5, PCT 2, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: the most important of the many
political parties are Congolese Labor Party or PCT [Denis
SASSOU-NGUESSO, president]; Association for Democracy and Development
or RDD [Joachim Yhombi OPANGO, president]; Association for Democracy
and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
president]; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development
or MCDDI [Bernard KOLELAS, leader]; Pan-African Union for Social
Development or UPADS [Pascal LISSOUBA, leader]; Union of Democratic
Forces or UFD [David Charles GANAO, leader]; Union for Democratic
Renewal or URD; Union for Development and Social Progress or UDPS
[Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Union of Congolese Socialist
Youth or UJSC; Congolese Trade Union Congress or CSC; Revolutionary
Union of Congolese Women or URFC; General Union of Congolese Pupils
and Students or UGEEC

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC,
UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Dieudonne Antoine GANGA
chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-5500
FAX : [1] (202) 726-1860

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador J. Aubrey HOOKS (10 June 1996)
embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
telephone: [242] 83 20 70
FAX: [242] 83 63 38

Flag description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is a mixture of village agriculture
and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on oil, support
services, and a government characterized by budget problems and
overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about 90% of government revenues and exports. In
the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to
finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. Subsequently, falling
oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover, the government has
mortgaged a substantial portion of its oil earnings, contributing to
the government's shortage of revenues. The 12 January 1994 devaluation
of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994
but inflation has subsided since. Recent efforts to implement economic
reforms have begun to show progress; the government and the IMF signed
an aid agreement in mid-1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 0.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,960 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11.4%
industry: 35.2%
services: 53.4% (1993)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $870 million
expenditures: $970 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering, brewing,
sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 165,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 440 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 223 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: cassava (tapioca) accounts for 90% of food
output, sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest
products

Exports:
total value: $952 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: crude oil 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee,
diamonds
partners: Belgium-Luxembourg 24.3%, Taiwan 20.2%, US 14.9%, Italy
14.8% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $559 million (f.o.b. 1994)
commodities : intermediate manufactures, capital equipment,
construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products
partners: France 31.2%, Netherlands 24.6%, Italy 11.4%, US 6.9% (1995
est.)

Debt - external: $5.3 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Congo, Republic of the:Communications

Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services barely adequate for government use; key
exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; inter-city
lines frequently out of order
domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
coaxial cable
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)

@Congo, Republic of the:Transportation

Railways:
total: 795 km (includes 285 km private track)
narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 12,760 km
paved: 1,238 km
unpaved : 11,522 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km of
commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for
local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports and harbors: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,218 GRT/4,100 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 34 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 13
over 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 9 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m : 14 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National
Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 601,771 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 306,757 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 26,081 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $110 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.8% (1993)

Military - note: under the terms of a 1994 peace agreement, which
ended two years of civil strife, members of militias who supported the
three main political parties are being integrated into the military
forces

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: long segment of boundary with Democratic
Republic of the Congo along the Congo River is indefinite (no division
of the river or its islands has been made)
______________________________________________________________________

COOK ISLANDS

(free association with New Zealand) 

@Cook Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about
one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 240 sq km
land: 240 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: 1.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land : 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other : 78% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea
signed, but not ratified: NA

@Cook Islands:People

Population: 19,776 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.7 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.14 years
male: 69.2 years
female: 73.1 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.22 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cook Islander(s)
adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic groups: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and European
7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%, other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace are members of the Cook
Islands Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA

@Cook Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form : Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Dependency status: free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is
fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains
responsibility for external affairs, in consultation with the Cook
Islands

Government type: self-governing parliamentary democracy

National capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with New
Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full
independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: based on New Zealand law and English common law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state : Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Apenera SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner
Darryl DUNN (since NA 1994), representative of New Zealand
head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1
February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1 February
1989)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister; collectively
responsible to Parliament
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; the queen's
representative is appointed by the queen; the New Zealand high
commissioner is appointed by the New Zealand Government; following
legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most
seats usually becomes prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (25 seats; members elected
by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held by NA 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Cook Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party 2
note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but
has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Democratic Alliance Party, Norman
GEORGE

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
FAO, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars
(one for every island) centered in the outer half of the flag

Economy

Economy - overview: Like other South Pacific island nations, the Cook
Islands' economic development is hindered by the isolation of the
country from foreign markets, lack of natural resources, periodic
devastation from natural disasters, and inadequate infrastructure.
Agriculture provides the economic base with major exports made up of
copra and citrus fruit. Manufacturing activities are limited to a
fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Trade deficits
are made up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign aid,
largely from New Zealand. In 1996, the government declared bankruptcy,
citing a $120 million public debt. Efforts to exploit tourism
potential and expanding the mining and fishing industries have not
been enough to adequately deal with the financial crisis. In an effort
to stem further erosion of the tenuous economic situation, the
government slashed public service salaries by 50%, condensed the
number of government ministries from 52 to 22, reduced the number of
civil servants by more than half, began selling government assets, and
closed all overseas diplomatic posts except for the one in New
Zealand.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $57 million (1993 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,000 (1993 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 17%
industry: 6%
services: 77% (FY90/91)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 5.8% (1994)

Labor force:
total: 6,601 (1993)
by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%, industry
15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 7,500 kW (1990)

Electricity - production: 20 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas,
yams, taro, coffee

Exports:
total value: $3.9 million (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities: copra, fresh and canned citrus fruit, clothing, coffee,
fish
partners: NZ 80%, Japan, Hong Kong

Imports:
total value : $67 million (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
partners: NZ 49%, Italy, Australia

Debt - external: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.275 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $5.4
million in budget support and $3.2 million in project and training aid
from New Zealand, the country's largest source of aid (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.4247 (January
1997), 1.4543 (1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993),
1.8584 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Cook Islands:Communications

Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system:
domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
fiber-optic cable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 studio and 8 low-powered repeaters
achieve good coverage on the island of Rarotonga

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)

@Cook Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 187 km
paved: 35 km
unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports and harbors: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 7 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

CORAL SEA ISLANDS

(territory of Australia) 

@Coral Sea Islands:Geography

Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: less than 3 sq km
land: less than 3 sq km
water : 0 sq km
note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
area of about 1 million sq km, with the Willis Islets the most
important

Area - comparative: NA

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones

Environment - current issues: no permanent fresh water resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: important nesting area for birds and turtles

@Coral Sea Islands:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a staff of four at the meteorological station

@Coral Sea Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Dependency status: territory of Australia; administered by the
Ministry for Sport, Territories, and Local Government

National capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: the laws of Australia, where applicable, apply

Executive branch: administered by the Minister for the Arts, Sport,
the Environments and Territories of Australia

Flag description: the flag of Australia is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Coral Sea Islands:Communications

Communications - note: there are automatic weather relay stations on
many of the isles and reefs relaying data to the mainland

@Coral Sea Islands:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the
activities of visitors

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

COSTA RICA

@Costa Rica:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 51,100 sq km
land: 50,660 sq km
water : 440 sq km
note: includes Isla del Coco

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 639 km
border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May
to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point : Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops : 5%
permanent pastures: 46%
forests and woodland: 31%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active
volcanoes

Environment - current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the
clearing of land for cattle ranching; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

@Costa Rica:People

Population: 3,534,174 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 34% (male 617,256; female 587,566)
15-64 years: 61% (male 1,090,414; female 1,065,273)
65 years and over : 5% (male 80,304; female 93,361) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.35 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.15 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 75.82 years
male : 73.41 years
female: 78.36 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.85 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic groups: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Amerindian 1%,
Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.8%
male: 94.7%
female: 95% (1995 est.)

@Costa Rica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Government type: democratic republic

National capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas,
San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May
1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May
1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May
1994); note - president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (since 8 May
1994); First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO Blanco (since 8 May
1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN Mayufis (since 8 May
1994); note - president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 6 February 1994
(next to be held NA February 1998)
election results : Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen elected president;
percent of vote - Jose Maria FIGUERES Olsen (PLN) 49.7%, Miquel Angel
RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 47.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 6 February 1994 (next to be held NA February
1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLN
28, PUSC 25, minority parties 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are elected
for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party or PLN
[Rolando ARAYA]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ];
National Agrarian Party or PAN; People's Party of Costa Rica or PPC
[Lenin CHACON Vargas]; Agricultural Union Party or PUAC [Juan
Guillermo BRENES Castillo]; Democratic Force Party or FD [Isaac Felipe
AZOFEIFA Bolanos]; People United [Humberto VARGAS Carbonell];
Patriotic Front Party; New Democratic Party or PDN [Rodrigo
GUTIERREZ)]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Confederated
Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for
Economic Development or ANFE; Free Costa Rica Movement or MCRL
(rightwing militants); National Association of Educators or ANDE;
Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE, CACM,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UN
Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general : Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio,
San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa
consulate(s): Austin

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS
embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: [506] 220-3939
FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
(double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk
on the hoist side of the red band

Economy

Economy - overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive
economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas,
coffee, and other agricultural products. Poverty has been
substantially reduced over the past 15 years, and a strong social
safety net has been put in place. Recent trends, however, have been
disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in
1995, and to 0.9% in 1996. Inflation rose to 22.5% in 1995 from 13.5%
in 1994, then dropped back to 13.9% in 1996. Unemployment appears
moderate at little more than 5% but substantial underemployment
continues. Furthermore, substantial government deficits have
undermined efforts to maintain the quality of social services. The
government thus faces a formidable set of problems: to curb inflation,
reduce the deficit, encourage domestic savings, and improve public
sector efficiency while increasing the role of the private sector, all
this in harmony with IMF agreements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $19 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -0.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 18%
industry: 24%
services: 58% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 13.9% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 868,300
by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1996 est.); much underemployment

Budget:
revenues : $1.1 billion
expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 1,113,900 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 5.138 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 1,330 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans,
potatoes; beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in
declining timber output)

Exports:
total value: $3.82 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands, UK,
France

Imports:
total value: $3.857 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
petroleum
partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

Debt - external: $3.2 billion (October 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 219.29 (December
1996), 207.69 (1996), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993),
134.51 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Costa Rica:Communications

Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
domestic: NA
international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)

@Costa Rica:Transportation

Railways:
total : 950 km
narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)
note: the entire system was scheduled to be shut down on 31 June 1995
because of insolvency

Highways:
total : 35,600 km
paved: 5,945 km
unpaved: 29,655 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports and harbors: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto
Quepos, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 143 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 115
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 96 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 28 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Coast Guard, Air Section, Ministry of Public
Security Force (Fuerza Publica) note - during 1996, the Ministry of
Public Security reorganized and eliminated the Civil Guard, Rural
Assistance Guard, and Frontier Guards as separate entities; they are
now under the Ministry and operate on a geographic command basis
performing ground security, law enforcement, counternarcotics, and
national security (border patrol) functions; the Constitution
prohibits armed forces

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 940,666 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 631,426 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 34,422 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $55 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South
America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered plots
______________________________________________________________________

COTE D'IVOIRE

@Cote d'Ivoire:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between
Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 322,460 sq km
land: 318,000 sq km
water: 4,460 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 3,110 km
border countries : Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons -
warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and
wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Gulf of Guinea 0 m
highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, cobalt,
bauxite, copper

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops : 4%
permanent pastures: 41%
forests and woodland: 22%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 680 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
the rainy season torrential flooding is possible

Environment - current issues: deforestation (most of the country's
forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the
timber industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and
agricultural effluents

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

@Cote d'Ivoire:People

Population: 14,986,218 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 47% (male 3,537,190; female 3,496,749)
15-64 years: 51% (male 3,927,687; female 3,700,468)
65 years and over: 2% (male 165,544; female 158,580) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.43 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.11 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.85 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note : since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire to
escape the civil war in Liberia

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.06 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 99.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 44.81 years
male : 43.63 years
female: 46.03 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.06 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ivorian(s)
adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic groups: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, Agni,
foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3 million),
non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to
300,000)

Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the most
widely spoken

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 40.1%
male: 49.9%
female: 30% (1995 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
conventional short form : Cote d'Ivoire
local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Government type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established
1960

National capital: Yamoussoukro
note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including the
US, maintain official presences in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo,
Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne,
Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou,
Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro,
Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times, last
time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993);
note - succeeded to the presidency following the death of President
Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who had served continuously since November
1960
head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
December 1993)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 22 October 1995 (next to be held October 2000);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Henri Konan BEDIE elected president; percent of vote
- Henri Konan BEDIE 96%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee
Nationale (175 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve five-year terms)
elections: elections last held 27 November 1995 (next to be held
November 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDCI
150, RDR 13, FPI 12

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote d'Ivoire
or PDCI [Henri Konan BEDIE]; Rally of the Republicans or RDR [Djeny
KOBINA]; Ivorian Popular Front or FPI [Laurent GBAGBO]; Ivorian
Worker's Party or PIT [Francis WODIE]; Ivorian Socialist Party or PSI
[Morifere BAMBA]; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Koffi Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER
embassy : 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
telephone: [225] 21 09 79
FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side),
white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and
has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white, and
red; design was based on the flag of France

Economy

Economy - overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest
producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil.
Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in
international prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions.
Despite attempts by the government to diversify the economy, it is
still largely dependent on agriculture and related activities, which
engage roughly 85% of the population. After several years of lagging
performance, the Ivorian economy began a comeback in 1994, due to
improved prices for cocoa and coffee, growth in nontraditional primary
exports such as pineapples and rubber, limited trade and banking
liberalization, offshore oil and gas discoveries, and generous
external financing and debt rescheduling by multilateral lenders and
France. The 50% devaluation of Franc Zone currencies on 12 January
1994 caused a one-time jump in the inflation rate to 32% for 1994, but
this rate fell to 8% by 1996, in part as the economy adjusted to the
devaluation. Moreover, government adherence to donor-mandated reforms
led to a jump in growth rates - 6.5% in GDP in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $23.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,620 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 31%
industry: 20%
services : 49% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1996 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $1.9 billion
expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408
million (1993)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials,
electricity

Industrial production growth rate: 9% (first half of 1996)

Electricity - capacity: 1.17 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 1.86 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 118 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels,
corn, rice, manioc (tapioca), sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber;
timber

Exports:
total value: $3.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: cocoa 36%, coffee 22%; tropical woods 4%, petroleum,
cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish
partners : France 18%, Germany 11%, Italy 8%, Burkina Faso, Mali, US,
UK, Netherlands

Imports:
total value : $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: food, consumer goods; capital goods, fuel, transport
equipment
partners: France 32%, Nigeria 20%, US 6.7%, Germany, Italy, Ghana

Debt - external: $16.7 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note : beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cote d'Ivoire:Communications

Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but operating
well below capacity
domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)

@Cote d'Ivoire:Transportation

Railways:
total : 660 km
narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track (1995 est.)

Highways:
total: 46,331 km
paved: 3,579 km
unpaved : 42,752 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons

Ports and harbors: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
total : 1 oil tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,200 GRT/2,181 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 34 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,478,429 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,811,508 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 164,364 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $140 million (1993)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1993)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for local
consumption; minor transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast
Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to the US
______________________________________________________________________

CROATIA

@Croatia:Geography

Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 56,538 sq km
land : 56,410 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
Montenego), Slovenia 670 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border,
low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline, and
islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 38%
other: 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical
plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal
pollution from industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties
and destruction of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil
strife

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification

Geography - note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

@Croatia:People

Population: 4,664,710 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 417,181; female 395,430)
15-64 years: 68% (male 1,590,334; female 1,593,470)
65 years and over: 14% (male 253,201; female 415,094) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.17% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 10.63 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.2 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population : 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 73.49 years
male: 70.16 years
female: 77.03 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Croat(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%,
Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian,
Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)

@Croatia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Government type: presidential/parliamentary democracy

National capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija -
singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva,
Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj,
Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar,
Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia,
Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since NA November
1995); Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September 1992),
Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA October
1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka MINTAS-HODAK
(since November 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 4 August 1992 (next to be held 15 June 1997); prime
minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: President Franjo TUDJMAN reelected; percent of vote
- Franjo TUDJMAN 56%, Dobroslav PARAGA 5%

Legislative branch: bicameral Assembly or Sabor consists of the House
of Districts or Zupanijski Dom (68 seats - 63 directly elected by
popular vote, 5 presidentially appointed; members serve four-year
terms) and House of Representatives or the Zastupnicki Dom (127 seats;
members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: House of Districts - last held 13 April 1997 (next to be
held NA 2001); House of Representatives - last held 29 October 1995
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Districts - percent of vote by party - NA;
seats by party - HDZ 42, HDZ/HSS 11, HSS 2, IDS 2, SDP/PGS/HNS 2,
SDP/HNS 2, HSLS/HSS/HNS 1, HSLS 1; note - in some districts certain
parties ran as coalitions, while in others they ran alone; House of
Representatives - percent of vote by party - HDZ 45.23%,
HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%; seats
by party - HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4, HNS 2, SNS
2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year terms
by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House
of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges appointed for
eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is
elected by the House of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ
[Franjo TUDJMAN, president]; Croatian Democratic Independents or HND
[Stjepan MESIC, president]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS
[Vlado GOTOVAC, president]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP
[Ivica RACAN]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Ante DAPIC]; Croatian
Peasants' Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS
[Radimir CACIC, president]; Serbian National Party or SNS [Milan
DJUKIC]; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia or ASH [Silvija
DEGEN]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VASELICA,
president]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JACKOVIC];
Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party or SBHS; Primorje Gorski Kotar
Alliance

Political pressure groups and leaders: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EBRD, ECE,
FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending
member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
ITU, NAM (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX : [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Department of State, Washington,
DC 20521-5080
telephone: [385] (1) 455-55-00
FAX : [385] (1) 455-85-85

Flag description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
coat of arms (red and white checkered)

Economy

Economy - overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic
of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized
area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav
average. Croatia faces considerable economic problems stemming from:
the legacy of longtime communist mismanagement of the economy; damage
during the internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines,
buildings, and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and
Bosnian; and the disruption of economic ties. Western aid and
investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would help
restore the economy. The government has been successful in some reform
efforts - partially macroeconomic stabilization policies - and it has
normalized relations with its creditors. Yet it still is struggling
with privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform.
The draft 1997 budget boosts expenditures on the repair and upgrading
of infrastructure. In 1996, the substantial trade deficit was
partially offset by increased earnings from tourism.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.4 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 11%
industry: 30%
services : 59% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 1.444 million (1995)
by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%, government
19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 13% (yearend 1996)

Budget:
revenues : $3.86 billion
expenditures: $3.72 billion, including capital expenditures of $320
million (1994 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal,
electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood
products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum
and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 3.59 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 8.03 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,208 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed,
alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock
breeding, dairy farming

Exports:
total value : $4.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous
manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%, raw
materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco 2.7%
(1993)
partners: Germany 22%, Italy 21%, Slovenia 18% (1994)

Imports:
total value: $7.6 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and
lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%,
miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%,
beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
partners : Germany 21%, Italy 19%, Slovenia 10% (1994)

Debt - external: $3.15 billion (September 1995)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA
note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given Croatia
$100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 lipas

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1 - 5.681 (January 1997), 5.434
(1996), 5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Croatia:Communications

Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)

@Croatia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 1,907 km
standard gauge : 1,907 km 1.435-m gauge (769 km electrified)
note: some lines inoperative or not in use; disrupted by territorial
dispute (1997)

Highways:
total: 26,929 km
paved: 21,947 km (including 302 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,982 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable; Sava blocked by downed
bridges

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310
km (1992); note - under repair following territorial dispute

Ports and harbors: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik,
Split, Zadar

Merchant marine:
total : 56 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 449,619 GRT/645,328 DWT
ships by type: bulk 7, cargo 29, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk
1, container 4, multi-function large load carrier 3, oil tanker 1,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, short-sea
passenger 4
note: Croatia owns an additional 105 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 2,875,941 DWT operating under the registries of Malta,
Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, and Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines (1996 est.)

Airports: 68 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 60
over 3,047 m : 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m : 47 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 19 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,190,814 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 946,063 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 35,464 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.56 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 10% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic
Serbs during the ethnic conflict, is currently being overseen by the
UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia; reintegration of
Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997; Croatia and Italy
have not resolved a bilateral issue dating from WWII over property and
ethnic minority rights; maritime border dispute with Slovenia over
direct access to the sea in the Adriatic; the border issue is
currently under negotiation; Serbia and Montenegro is disputing
Croatia's claim to the Prevlaka Peninsula in southern Croatia because
it controls the entrance to Kotor Bay in Montenegro; Prevlaka is
currently under observation by the UN military observer mission in
Prevlaka (UNMOP)

Illicit drugs: transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest
Asian heroin to Western Europe; a minor transit point for maritime
shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe
______________________________________________________________________

CUBA

@Cuba:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 110,860 sq km
land: 110,860 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 29 km
border countries: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains part
of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point : Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 24%
permanent crops: 7%
permanent pastures : 27%
forests and woodland: 24%
other: 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 9,100 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane every
other year); droughts are common

Environment - current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting
threatens wildlife populations; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,
Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note: largest country in Caribbean

@Cuba:People

Population: 10,999,041 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 22% (male 1,255,844; female 1,190,860)
15-64 years: 69% (male 3,770,154; female 3,753,094)
65 years and over: 9% (male 483,858; female 545,231) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.42% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 13.21 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.42 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population : 75.2 years
male: 72.83 years
female: 77.71 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.54 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cuban(s)
adjective: Cuban

Ethnic groups: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming
power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 96.2%
female: 95.3% (1995 est.)

@Cuba:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Communist state

National capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey,
Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo,
Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar
del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements
of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the
Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from February
1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished; president since
2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and
First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz
(since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both the chief of
state and head of government
head of government : President of the Council of State and President
of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz (prime minister from
February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when office was abolished;
president since 2 December 1976); First Vice President of the Council
of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen.
Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December 1976); note - the president is both
the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council
of State, appointed by the National Assembly
note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by
the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National
Assembly; election last held 15 March 1993 (next to be held NA)
election results : Fidel CASTRO Ruz elected president; percent of
legislative vote - NA; Raul CASTRO Ruz elected vice president; percent
of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or
Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (589 seats, elected directly from
slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve
five-year terms)
elections: last held 24 February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo Popular),
president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the
National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or
PCC [Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA,
ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US: none; note - Cuba has an
Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
Embassy, 2630 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1]
(202) 797-8609, 8610, and 8615

Diplomatic representation from the US: none; note - the US does have
an Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
Michael G. KOZAK; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada between L and
M, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559 and 33-3543
through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700; protecting
power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist
side bears a white five-pointed star in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: The state plays the primary role in the economy
and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has
undertaken several reforms in recent years to stem excess liquidity,
increase labor incentives, and alleviate serious shortages of food,
consumer goods, and services. The liberalized agricultural markets
introduced in October 1994, at which state and private farmers sell
above-quota production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal
consumption alternatives and reduced black market prices. Government
efforts to lower subsidies to unprofitable enterprises and to shrink
the money supply caused the peso's black market value to move from a
peak of 120 to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to a low of 18-20 to
the dollar in late September before climbing to 20-21 at the end of
1996. New taxes helped drive down the number of legally registered
self-employed workers from 208,000 in January 1996 to 180,000 by
December. Havana announced in 1995 that GDP declined by 35% during
1989-1993, the result of lost Soviet aid and domestic inefficiencies.
The drop in GDP apparently halted in 1994, when Cuba reported a 0.7%
growth. Government officials claimed that GDP increased by 2.5% in
1995 and 7.8% in 1996. Export earnings rose an estimated 40% in 1996
to $2.1 billion, largely on the strength of increased sugar shipments
to Russia and higher nickel production through a joint venture with a
Canadian firm. With the economic recovery, imports rose for the second
straight year, growing by an estimated 26% to $3.5 billion. Living
standards for the average Cuban, however, have not improved
significantly.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.8% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,480 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 7%
industry: 31%
services: 62% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total : 4.71 million economically active population (1989); 3,527,000
employed in state civilian sector (1989)
by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%, agriculture
20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and communications
7% (June 1990)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 4.082 million kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 11.189 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 822 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice,
potatoes and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports:
total value: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: sugar, nickel, tobacco, shellfish, medical products,
citrus, coffee
partners : Canada 23%, Russia 21% China 7% (1996 est.)

Imports:
total value: $3.5 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities : petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
partners: Russia 14%, Spain 13%, Mexico 11% (1996 est.)

Debt - external: $10.5 billion (convertible currency, 1996); another
$20 billion owed to Russia (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (non-convertible,
official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cuba:Communications

Telephones: 229,000

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone systems
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)

@Cuba:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,677 km
standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified)
note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
total : 27,100 km
paved: 15,122 km
unpaved: 11,978 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports and harbors: Cienfuegos, Havana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
total : 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,092 GRT/162,029 DWT
ships by type: cargo 11, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 4,
refrigerated cargo 6
note: Cuba owns an additional 38 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
548,170 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta,
Belize, and Mauritius (1996 est.)

Airports: 162 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 130
over 3,047 m : 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 92 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 31 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground
forces, Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT); Border
Guards (TGF), which are controlled by the Interior Ministry

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 3,053,716
females age 15-49: 3,007,277 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,896,023 (1997 est.)
females: 1,861,886 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 61,934
females: 58,648 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: roughly 4% (1995 est.)

Military - note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased to
US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
terminate the lease

Illicit drugs: lesser transshipment point for cocaine bound for the US
______________________________________________________________________

CYPRUS

@Cyprus:Geography

Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
total: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
land: 9,240 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.6 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered
but significant plains along southern coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 13%
other : 70% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 390 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity

Environment - current issues: water resource problems (no natural
reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall; sea water
intrusion to island's largest aquifier); water pollution from sewage
and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of wildlife habitats
from urbanization

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Endangered Species,
Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change

@Cyprus:People

Population: 752,808 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 25% (male 96,924; female 91,833)
15-64 years: 65% (male 244,821; female 241,580)
65 years and over: 10% (male 33,858; female 43,792) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.08% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 15.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 7.58 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population : 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.54 years
male: 74.38 years
female: 78.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Cypriot(s)
adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic groups: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area;
0.5% of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the
Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish
area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek
area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 98%
female: 91% (1987 est.)

@Cyprus:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Republic of Cyprus
conventional short form: Cyprus
note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic of
Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Government type: republic
note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of
the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto
control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only internationally
recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish Cypriot "President"
Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the formation of a "Turkish
Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which has been recognized only by
Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government

National capital: Nicosia
note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca,
Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area administrative
divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of Famagusta, and
small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975 from
Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a
new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish area passed by
referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February 1993);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES (since 28 February
1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government; post of vice president is currently vacant; under the 1960
constitution, the post is reserved for a Turkish Cypriot
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed jointly by the president and
vice president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term;
election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1998)
election results : Glafcos CLERIDES elected president; percent of vote
- Glafcos CLERIDES 50.3%, Yeoryios VASSILIOU 49.7%
note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish area since
13 February 1975 (president elected by popular vote for a five-year
term); elections last held 15 and 22 April 1995 (next to be held NA
April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH 62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%;
Dervis EROGLU has been "prime minister" of the Turkish area since 16
August 1996; there is a Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the Turkish
area

Legislative branch: unicameral - Greek area: House of Representatives
or Vouli Antiprosopon (80 seats of which only 56 assigned to the Greek
Cypriots are filled; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms); Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic or Cumhuriyet
Meclisi (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
five-year terms)
elections: Greek area: last held 26 May 1996 (next to be held May
2001); Turkish area: last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held
December 1998)
election results : Greek area: House of Representatives - percent of
vote by party - DISY 34.5%, AKEL (Communist) 33.0%, DIKO 16.4%, EDEK
8.1%, KED 3.7%, others 4.1%; seats by party - DISY 20, AKEL
(Communist) 19, DIKO 10, EDEK 5, KED 2; Turkish area: Assembly of the
Republic - percent of vote by party - UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2%
TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats by party - UBP (conservative) 17, DP 15,
CTP 13, TKP 5

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the Supreme
Council of Judicature
note : there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders: Greek area: Progressive Party of the
Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS];
Democratic Rally or DISY [Ioannis MATSIS]; Democratic Party or DIKO
[Spyros KYPRIANOU]; United Democratic Union of Cyprus or EDEK [Vassos
LYSSARIDIS]; Liberal Party or KP [Nikolaos ROLANDIS]; Free Democrats
Movement or KED [Yeoryios VASSILIOU]; New Horizons [Nikolaos KOUTSOU,
secretary general]; Ecologists [Yeoryios PERDHIKIS]; Turkish area:
National Unity Party or UBP [Dervis EROGLU]; Communal Liberation Party
or TKP [Mustafa AKINCI]; Republican Turkish Party or CTP [Mehmet ALI
TALAT]; Free Democratic Party or HDP [Ismet KOTAK]; Nationalist
Justice Party or MAP [Zorlu TORE]; Unity and Sovereignty Party or BEP
[Arif Salih KIRDAG]; Democratic Party or DP [Serdar DENKTASH]; the
HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the label National Struggle Unity Party
(MMBP) to compete in the 12 December 1993 legislative election

Political pressure groups and leaders: Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or
PEO (Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers or SEK
(pro-West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or Turk-Sen;
Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions or Dev-Is

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE, EU
(applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas NIKOLAIDES
chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone : [1] (202) 462-5772
FAX: [1] (202) 483-6710
consulate(s) general: New York
note: representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORHAN,
office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202)
887-6198

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Kenneth C. BRILL (26 June 1996)
embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
mailing address : P. O. Box 4536, Nicosia, Cyprus
telephone: [357] (2) 476100
FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
(the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek and
Turkish communities
note : the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the top
and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a white
field

Economy

Economy - overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and prosperous,
but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry contributes 23% to
GDP and employs 25% of the labor force, while the service sector
contributes 72% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor force. Erratic
growth rates in the 1990s reflect the economy's vulnerability to
swings in tourist arrivals (caused by fluctuations in political and
economic conditions in Western Europe and the Middle East) and the
need for structural changes in the economy. One bright spot has been
the low rate of inflation. In 1996 Cyprus fully satisfied all the
Maastricht convergence criteria. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less
than one-third the per capita GDP of the south. Because it is
recognized only by Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging
foreign financing, and foreign firms have hesitated to invest there.
The economy remains heavily dependent on agriculture and government
service, which together employ about half of the work force. Moreover,
the small, vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is
legal tender. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey
provides direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector. In January
1997, Turkey signed a $250 million economic cooperation accord with
the Turkish Cypriot area to support tourism, education, and industry.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.8 billion (Greek area: purchasing
power parity - $8,300,000,000; Turkish area: purchasing power parity -
$536,000,000) (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.4% (Greek area: 4%; Turkish area: 0.5%)
(1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,800 (Greek area:
purchasing power parity - $13,700; Turkish area: purchasing power
parity - $3,950) (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector: Greek area: agriculture 5.3%; industry
22.7%; services 72% (1996 est.); Turkish area: agriculture 11.4%;
industry 22.9%; services 65.7% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: Greek area: 3.3% (1996 est.);
Turkish area: 86% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : Greek area: 299,700
by occupation: services 62%, industry 25%, agriculture 13% (1995)
total: Turkish area: 76,500
by occupation: services 66%, industry 11%, agriculture 23% (1995)

Unemployment rate: Greek area: 2.3% (1996 est.); Turkish area: 3.6%
(1995 est.)

Budget:
revenues: Greek area - $2.9 billion, Turkish area - $149 million
expenditures: Greek area - $3.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $453 million, Turkish area - $304 million, including
capital expenditures of $20 million (1996)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate: Greek area: -4% (1996); Turkish
area: 2.6% (1992)

Electricity - capacity: 690,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 2.5 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 3,380 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, citrus, vegetables, barley, grapes,
olives, vegetables

Exports:
total value: Greek area: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
shoes
partners: Russia 17%, UK 11%, Greece 6%, Germany 5%
total value: Turkish area: $71 million (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles
partners : UK 35%, Turkey 30%

Imports:
total value: Greek area: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
grains, machinery
partners: US 16%, UK 11%, Italy 9%, Germany 7%, Greece 7%, Japan 6%
total value : Turkish area: $330 million (f.o.b., 1996);
commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
partners: Turkey 53%, UK 13%

Debt - external: Greek area: $1.8 billion (1996)

Economic aid: Greek area: recipient - $700 million with amount
declining in recent years (1974-96 est.); Turkish area: recipient -
$400 million from Turkey (1977-96 est.)

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (C) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$ - 0.4816 (January 1997),
0.4663 (1996), 0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502
(1992); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 112,019 (January 1997), 81,405
(1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Cyprus:Communications

Telephones: Greek area: 367,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 80,000
(1996 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek and Turkish areas
domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: Greek area: AM 4, FM 36, shortwave 1,
Turkish area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: Greek area: 500,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 130,000 (1996
est.)

Television broadcast stations: Greek area: 8 (repeaters 34); Turkish
area: 2

Televisions: Greek area: 300,000 (1996 est.); Turkish area: 90,000
(1996 est.)

@Cyprus:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: Greek area: 10,150 km; Turkish area: 2,350 km
paved : Greek area: 5,781 km; Turkish area: 1,370 km
unpaved: Greek area: 4,369 km; Turkish area: 980 km

Ports and harbors: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos
Bay

Merchant marine:
total : 1,520 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,234,821
GRT/40,170,562 DWT
ships by type: bulk 486, cargo 562, chemical tanker 26, combination
bulk 50, combination ore/oil 19, container 119, liquefied gas tanker
3, oil tanker 142, passenger 7, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo
50, roll-on/roll-off cargo 32, short-sea passenger 17, specialized
tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2
note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 49 countries
among which are Greece 723, Germany 172, Russia 45, Netherlands 32,
Japan 30, Belgium 26, Cuba 26, Latvia 17, UK 15, and US 14; Cyprus
owns 71 additional ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,491,740 DWT
that operate under the registries of Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas,
Hong Kong, Liberia, Malta, Panama, Syria, and UK (1996 est.)

Airports: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG;
includes air and naval elements); Hellenic Forces Regiment on Cyprus
(ELDYK); Greek Cypriot Police;, Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security
Force (TCSF), Turkish Forces Regiment on Cyprus (KTKA), Turkish
mainland army units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 192,593 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 132,412 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 6,038 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $405 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5.4% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two
de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (59% of the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area
(37% of the island), that are separated by a UN buffer zone (4% of the
island); there are two UK sovereign base areas within the Greek
Cypriot portion of the island

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin and hashish via air routes and
container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey; some
cocaine transits as well
______________________________________________________________________

CZECH REPUBLIC

@Czech Republic:Geography

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 78,703 sq km
land: 78,645 sq km
water: 58 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
total: 1,881 km
border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
Slovakia 215 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and
plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of
very hilly country

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Elbe River 115 m
highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
arable land: 41%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures: 11%
forests and woodland: 34%
other: 12% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 240 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air and water pollution in areas of
northwest Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present
health risks; acid rain damaging forests

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law
of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geography - note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a
traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and the
Danube in central Europe

@Czech Republic:People

Population: 10,298,324 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 18% (male 930,874; female 886,444)
15-64 years : 69% (male 3,542,900; female 3,539,351)
65 years and over: 13% (male 535,049; female 863,706) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -0.13% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 8.84 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.02 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.93 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 73.86 years
male: 70.49 years
female: 77.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Czech(s)
adjective: Czech
note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic groups: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German 0.5%, Gypsy
0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy:
definition: age NA and over can read and write
total population: 99% (est.)
male: NA%
female : NA%

@Czech Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Czech Republic
conventional short form: Czech Republic
local long form: Ceska Republika
local short form: Ceska Republika

Data code: EZ

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular);
Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky,
Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring
it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993)
head of government : Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992);
Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK (since NA June 1992), Josef LUX
(since NA June 1992), Josef ZIELENIEC (since NA June 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of
the prime minister
elections : president elected by Parliament for a five-year term;
election last held 26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998);
prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Vaclav HAVEL elected president; percent of
parliamentary vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the
Senate (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve
staggered two-, four-, and six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies
or Snemovna Poslancu (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote
to serve four-year terms)
elections : Senate - last held 15-16 and 22-23 November 1996 (next to
be held NA November 1998 - to replace/re-elect 20 senators serving
two-year terms); Chamber of Deputies - last held 31 May-1 June 1996
(next to be held NA May 2000)
election results : Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - governing coalition (ODS 32, KDU-CSL 13, ODA 7), opposition
(CSSD 25, KCSM 2, DEU 1, independent 1); Chamber of Deputies - percent
of vote by party - NA; seats by party - governing coalition (ODS 68,
KDU-CSL 18, ODA 13), opposition (CSSD 61, KCSM 22, SPR-RSC 18)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, chairman and deputy
chairmen are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:
governing coalition : Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Vaclav KLAUS,
chairman]; Civic Democratic Alliance or ODA [Michael ZANTOVSKY,
chairman]; Christian Democratic Union-Czech People's Party or KDU-CSL
[Josef LUX, chairman]
opposition: Czech Social Democrats or CSSD - left opposition [Milos
ZEMAN, chairman]; Communist Party or KSCM - left opposition [Miroslav
GREBENICEK, chairman]; Assembly for the Republic or SPR-RSC - extreme
right radical [Miroslav SLADEK, chairman]; Democratic Union or DEU
[Ratibor MAJZLIK, chairman]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Czech-Moravian Chamber of Trade
Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, CCC,
CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Interpol,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UPU, WEU (associate
partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander VONDRA
chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 274-9101, 9102
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540
consulate(s) general : Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER
embassy : Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
mailing address: Unit 1330, APO AE 09213
telephone: [420] (2) 5732-0663
FAX: [420] (2) 5732-0920

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)

Economy

Economy - overview: Western observers view the Czech Republic as one
of the most politically and economically stable post-Communist states.
Its key macroeconomic indicators are, in the aggregate, the best in
the region, and public opinion polls show strong support for reform.
The country emerged from recession in 1994 with 2.6% growth and
reached about 5% growth in both 1995 and 1996 while keeping a balanced
budget and reorienting exports to the EU. Inflation and unemployment
of 8.7% and 3.3% respectively in 1996 are among the lowest in the
region. Prague's mass privatization program, including its innovative
distribution of ownership shares to Czech citizens via "coupon
vouchers," has made the most rapid progress in Eastern Europe. About
80% of the economy is in private hands or is partially privatized. The
Czech Republic appears to be the East European frontrunner in economic
integration with the West; for example, in 1996 it began to strengthen
its bankruptcy law and to improve the transparency of stock market
operations. It was the first post-Communist member of the OECD and is
expected to be in the next group of new EU members. Its solid economic
performance has led Standard and Poor's to upgrade the country's
sovereign credit rating to "A" and has attracted over $6.7 billion in
direct foreign investment to Czech industry between 1990 and September
1996 - one quarter from the US. Prague's biggest macroeconomic
concerns now are mounting trade and current account deficits. In
addition, the Czech economy still faces transition problems. The
government continues to exert too much direct and indirect influence
on the privatized economy, and the management of privatized firms
sometimes is ineffective. Insufficient regulation and lack of public
information in the capital markets and the banking system, combined
with a shortage of experienced financial analysts, limit the ability
to distribute new credit efficiently. The judicial system also has
trouble speedily processing bankruptcy cases. Prague has promised to
overhaul its bankruptcy law and improve stock market and bank
operations, but it will take years to ensure compliance. Prague
forecasts a balanced budget, 4.5% GDP growth, 3.3% unemployment and
7.5% to 8% inflation for 1997.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $114.3 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $11,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 43%
services : 53% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8.7% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 5.107 million (1996)
by occupation: industry 33.1%, agriculture 6.9%, construction 9.1%,
transport and communications 7.2%, services 43.7% (1994)

Unemployment rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $18.4 billion
expenditures: $18.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment, coal,
motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 13.85 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 55.38 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,712 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit;
pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products

Exports:
total value: $21.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: manufactured goods 32.4%, machinery and transport
equipment 26.3%, chemicals 10.4%, raw materials and fuel 11.3% (1995)
partners : EU 55.1%, Eastern Europe, excluding Slovakia, and CIS
countries 16.9%, Slovakia 16.2%, developing countries 6.6%, EFTA 1.8%
(1995)

Imports:
total value: $27.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 35.6%, manufactured
goods 17.9%, chemicals 13.2%, raw materials and fuels 14.4% (1994)
partners : EU 56.4%, Eastern Europe, excluding Slovakia, and CIS
countries 15.7%, Slovakia 13.1%, developing countries 6.0%, EFTA 2.5%
(1995)

Debt - external: $17.1 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $27 million (1993)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 27.516 (January 1997), 27.145
(1996), 26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992)
note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Czech Republic:Communications

Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international : satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic
and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA

@Czech Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 9,441 km
standard gauge : 9,345 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2641 km electrified
at three voltages)
narrow gauge: 96 km two narrow gauges (1995)

Highways:
total: 124,770 km
paved: 16,719 km (including 414 km of expressways)
unpaved : 108,051 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports and harbors: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine:
total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 80,117 GRT/134,890 DWT
ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 116 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 29
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 87
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 32
under 914 m : 41 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense,
Railroad Units

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,715,759 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,068,143 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 84,516 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.22 billion (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.2% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600
sq km of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918;
the Czech Republic insists that restitution does not go back before
February 1948, when the communists seized power; individual Sudeten
German claims for restitution of property confiscated in connection
with their expulsion after World War II; unresolved property issues
with Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former
Czechoslovak federal government

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
hashish and Latin American cocaine to Western Europe; domestic
consumption - especially of locally produced synthetic drugs - on the
rise
______________________________________________________________________

DENMARK

@Denmark:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,
on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 43,094 sq km
land: 42,394 sq km
water: 700 sq km
note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 68 km
border countries : Germany 68 km

Coastline: 7,314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 4 nm
continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 3 nm

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone,
stone, gravel and sand

Land use:
arable land: 60%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 5%
forests and woodland: 10%
other: 25% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 4,350 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
(e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes

Environment - current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle
and power plant emissions; nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the
North Sea; drinking and surface water becoming polluted from animal
wastes and pesticides

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber
94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: controls Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat)
linking Baltic and North Seas; about one-quarter of the population
lives in Copenhagen

@Denmark:People

Population: 5,305,048 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 18% (male 487,731; female 463,444)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,801,904; female 1,754,435)
65 years and over: 15% (male 330,143; female 467,391) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.59% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 12.78 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 11.22 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.1 years
male: 73.44 years
female: 78.9 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.75 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dane(s)
adjective: Danish

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect), German
(small minority)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99% (1980 est.)
male : NA%
female: NA%

@Denmark:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Kingdom of Denmark
conventional short form: Denmark
local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Government type: constitutional monarchy

National capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties (amter,
singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholms, Frederiksborg,
Fyns, Kobenhavns, Nordjyllands, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde,
Sonderjyllands, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstroms, Vejle, Vestsjaellands,
Viborg
note : there is one other city, Fredericksberg, mentioned by some
sources, but the US government has not recognized it as a first-order
administrative division; see separate entries for the Faroe Islands
and Greenland, which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing
administrative divisions

Independence: 10th century first organized as a unified state; in 1849
became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a major
overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature and a
female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the queen (born 26 May
1968)
head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since 25
January 1993)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the queen
elections: none; the queen is a constitutional monarch; prime minister
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Folketing (179 seats;
members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to
serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 21 September 1994 (next to be held not later than
September 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 34.6%,
Liberals 23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Socialist People's Party 7.3%,
Progress Party 6.4%, Social Liberals 4.6%, Unity List 3.1%, Center
Democrats 2.8%, Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats by party - Social
Democrats 63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Socialist People's Party
13, Progress Party 11, Social Liberals 8, Unity List 6, Center
Democrats 5, independent 1; note - Progress Party split up in spring
of 1995: Progress Party retained 7 seats, Danish People's Party 4
seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the monarch
for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Poul Nyrup
RASMUSSEN]; Conservative Party [Hans ENGELL]; Liberal Party [Uffe
ELLEMANN-JENSEN]; Socialist People's Party [Holger K. NIELSEN];
Progress Party [Kirsten JAKOBSEN]; Center Democratic Party [Mimi
JAKOBSEN]; Social Liberal Party [Marianne JELVED]; Unity Party [none];
Danish People's Party [Pia KJAERSGAARD]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP,
UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
mailing address: PSC 73, APO AE 09716
telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
FAX : [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

Economy

Economy - overview: This thoroughly modern market economy features
high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry,
extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards,
and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of
food. The center-left coalition government will concentrate on
reducing the persistently high unemployment rate and the budget
deficit as well as following the previous government's policies of
maintaining low inflation and a current account surplus. The coalition
also vows to maintain a stable currency. The coalition has lowered
marginal income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boosted
industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and
increased research and development funds; and improved welfare
services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime
Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms focus on adapting Denmark to the criteria
for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from the European
Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European Monetary Union (EMU).
Denmark is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into
the EMU on time.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $118.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $22,700 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 4%
industry: 27%
services: 69% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.1% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 2,895,950
by occupation: private services 40%, government services 30%,
manufacturing and mining 19%, construction 6%, agriculture, forestry,
and fishing 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 8.2% (November 1996)

Budget:
revenues: $62.1 billion
expenditures: $66.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and
other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: 3.4% (1996)

Electricity - capacity: 9.458 million kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 34.6 billion kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,411 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat,
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $47.6 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and instruments 25%, meat and meat products,
fuels, dairy products, ships, fish, chemicals
partners : Germany 22.5%, Sweden 9.7%, UK 7.9%, Norway 5.9%, France
5.4%, Netherlands 4.4%, US 4.0% (1995)

Imports:
total value: $42.4 billion (c.i.f., 1996 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, petroleum 25%, chemicals, grain
and foodstuffs, textiles, paper
partners : Germany 21.7%, Sweden 11.7%, Netherlands 7.0%, UK 6.6%,
France 5.2%, Norway 4.9%, US 4.7%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1995)

Debt - external: $44 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.117 (January 1997),
5.799 (1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Denmark:Communications

Telephones: 4.025 million (1995 est.), of which 822,000 are mobile
telephones

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
trunk network, four cellular radio communications systems
international: 18 submarine optical fiber cables linking Denmark with
Norway, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, the Netherlands, UK, Faroe
Islands, Iceland, and Canada; satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat;
10 Eutelsat; 1 Orion; 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East); note - the
Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share
the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for world-wide
Inmarsat access

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 50 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 3 million (1996 est.)

@Denmark:Transportation

Railways:
total: 2,848 km (499 km privately owned and operated)
standard gauge: 2,848 km 1.435-m gauge (326 km electrified; 760 km
double track) (1995)

Highways:
total : 71,420 km
paved: 71,420 km (including 830 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural gas
700 km

Ports and harbors: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia,
Grenaa, Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
total: 328 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,180,729 GRT/7,400,870
DWT
ships by type: bulk 15, cargo 114, chemical tanker 20, container 68,
liquefied gas tanker 25, livestock carrier 6, oil tanker 29, railcar
carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 16, roll-on/roll-off cargo 24, short-sea
passenger 9, specialized tanker 1
note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the Danish
International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to meet
Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of convenience
within the Danish register (1996 est.)

Airports: 109 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 102
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 77 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish
Air Force, Home Guard

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,333,279 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,146,099 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 33,532 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.9 billion (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1997 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving
Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area)
______________________________________________________________________

DJIBOUTI

@Djibouti:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea,
between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 22,000 sq km
land: 21,980 sq km
water : 20 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 508 km
border countries : Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Asal -155 m
highest point : Mousa Alli 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
arable land : NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures: 9%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 91% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Law of
the Sea, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification

Geography - note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
Ethiopia; mostly wasteland

@Djibouti:People

Population: 434,116 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 92,920; female 92,584)
15-64 years: 55% (male 125,547; female 112,140)
65 years and over: 2% (male 5,624; female 5,301) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.51% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 42.16 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.98 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.09 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 104.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.61 years
male: 48.65 years
female: 52.63 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.01 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian, and
Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.2%
male : 60.3%
female: 32.7% (1995 est.)

@Djibouti:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular - cercle);
'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)
cabinet : Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a six-year term;
election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: President HASSAN GOULED reelected; percent of vote -
NA

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des
Deputes (65 seats; members are elected to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 18 December 1992 (next to be held NA 1997)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP
(the ruling party) dominated

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party : People's Progress Assembly or RPP [Hassan GOULED
Aptidon]
other parties: Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Mohamed Jama ELABE];
Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Front for the Restoration of
Unity and Democracy or FRUD, and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
Democracy or MUD

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX : [1] (202) 331-0302

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Terri ROBL
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone : [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bearing a red five-pointed star in the center

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is based on service activities
connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in
the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders. Scanty
rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most
food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit
port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling
center. It has few natural resources and little industry. The nation
is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance (an important
supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of payments and to
finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 40% to 50%
continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption dropped an
estimated 35% over the last six years because of recession, civil war,
and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees).
Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has
fallen in arrears on long term external debt and has been struggling
to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -3.1% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 3%
industry: 21%
services: 76% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 4.9% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 282,000
by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 40%-50% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $150 million
expenditures: $181 million, including capital expenditures of $34
million (1995 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as dairy
products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 115,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (1991)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 577 kWh (1991)

Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports:
total value: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit) (1995)
partners: Somalia 42%, Ethiopia 35%, Yemen 7% (1995 est.)

Imports:
total value: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
petroleum products (1995)
partners : Thailand 15%, France 13%, Ethiopia 8%, Saudi Arabia 6%
(1995 est.)

Debt - external: $267 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed rate
since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Djibouti:Communications

Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are
adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying
areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseilles,
Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian
Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; MEDARABTEL regional microwave radio relay
telephone network

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)

@Djibouti:Transportation

Railways:
total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 11 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 4
over 3,047 m : 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m : 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air
Force), National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite),
National Police Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 103,569 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 60,751 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $26 million (1989)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICA

@Dominica:Geography

Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North
Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad
and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 750 sq km
land: 750 sq km
water : 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
arable land : 9%
permanent crops: 13%
permanent pastures: 3%
forests and woodland: 67%
other : 8% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

@Dominica:People

Population: 66,633 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 28% (male 9,287; female 9,115)
15-64 years: 63% (male 21,364; female 20,617)
65 years and over : 9% (male 2,569; female 3,681) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.26% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 17.72 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -24.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.6 years
male: 74.74 years
female : 80.6 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: black, Carib Amerindian

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%), none
2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 94%
male: 94%
female: 94% (1970 est.)

@Dominica:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Commonwealth of Dominica
conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Government type: parliamentary democracy

National capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint
Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June
1995)
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president on the advice of the
prime minister
elections: president elected by the House of Assembly for a five-year
term; election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October
1998); prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO elected president; percent
of legislative vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (30 seats, 9
appointed senators, 21 elected by popular vote representatives;
members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 12 June 1995; byelections held 13 August 1996
(next to be held by October 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UWP
12, DLP 5, DFP 4

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Santa
Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside over
the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Charles
SAVERIN]; Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Rosie DOUGLAS]; United Workers
Party or UWP [Edison JAMES]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Dominica Liberation Movement or
DLM (a small leftist party)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward I. WATTY (non-resident)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 364-6781
FAX : [1] (202) 364-6791
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands -
the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the
horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in the
center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot encircled
by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10 stars represent
the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus
is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions, notably tropical storms.
Agriculture, primarily bananas, accounts for 26% of GDP and employs
40% of the labor force. Development of the tourist industry remains
difficult because of the rugged coastline, lack of beaches, and the
lack of an international airport. Hurricane Luis devastated the
country's banana crop in September 1995; tropical storms had wiped out
one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as well. The government is attempting
to develop an offshore financial industry in order to diversify the
island's production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $208 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.7% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 26%
industry: NA%
services : NA% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total : 25,000
by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $80 million
expenditures: $95.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(FY95/96 est.)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 15,000 kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 52 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 479 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops,
coconuts; forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Exports:
total value : $40 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: bananas 70%, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit,
oranges
partners: UK 55%, Caricom countries, Italy, US

Imports:
total value: $122 million (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities : manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
chemicals
partners: US 25%, Caricom, UK, Japan, Canada

Debt - external: $110 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (February
1997; fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Dominica:Communications

Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: fully automatic network
international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)

@Dominica:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 765 km
paved: 385 km
unpaved: 380 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes
Special Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
Europe; minor cannabis producer
______________________________________________________________________

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

@Dominican Republic:Geography

Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola,
between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 48,730 sq km
land: 48,380 sq km
water : 350 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
total : 275 km
border countries: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
arable land: 21%
permanent crops: 9%
permanent pastures : 43%
forests and woodland: 12%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,300 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)

Environment - current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the
sea damages coral reefs; deforestation

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)

@Dominican Republic:People

Population: 7,868,731 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 1,423,626; female 1,371,309)
15-64 years: 60% (male 2,404,042; female 2,334,119)
65 years and over : 4% (male 160,270; female 175,365) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.65% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 26.87 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.39 years
male : 67.21 years
female: 71.69 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Dominican(s)
adjective: Dominican

Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 82.1%
male: 82%
female : 82.2% (1995 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Dominican Republic
conventional short form: none
local long form : Republica Dominicana
local short form: none

Data code: DR

Government type: republic

National capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat,
Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria
Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata,
Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez,
San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago, Santiago
Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married persons
regardless of age
note : members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
head of government : President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (since 16 August
1996); Vice President Jaime David FERNANDEZ Mirabal (since 16 August
1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of
government
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year term; election last held 16 May 1996;
runoff election held 30 June 1996 (next to be held 16 May 2000)
election results: President FERNANDEZ elected to his first term;
percent of vote - Leonel FERNANDEZ (PLD) 51.25%, Jose Francisco PENA
Gomez (PRD) 48.75%

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
consists of the Senate or Senado (30 seats; members are elected by
popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or
Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to
serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 30 May 1994 (next to be held NA May
1998); Chamber of Deputies - last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA
May 1998)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote
by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
a Council made up of legislative and executive members with the
president presiding

Political parties and leaders:
major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Joaquin
BALAGUER Ricardo]; Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Lidio CADET];
Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Jose Franciso PENA Gomez];
Independent Revolutionary Party or PRI
minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party or PNVC [Juan Rene
BEAUCHAMPS Javier]; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD
[Andres Van Der HORST]; Democratic Quisqueyan Party or PQD [Elias
WESSIN Chavez]; National Progressive Force or FNP [Marino VINICIO
Castillo]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Rogelio DELGADO Bogaert];
Dominican Communist Party or PCD [Narciso ISA Conde]; Dominican
Workers' Party or PTD [Ivan RODRIGUEZ]; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
Union or UPA [Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini]; Alliance for Democracy
Party or APD [Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida MARMOLEJOS,
Vicente BENGOA]; Democratic Union or UD [Fernando ALVAREZ Bogaert]
note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
form the Dominican Leftist Front or FID; however, they still retain
individual party structures

Political pressure groups and leaders: Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Bernardo VEGA Boyrie
chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280, 6281
FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico)
consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
Navarro, Santo Domingo
mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041
telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100
FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges,
divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small
coat of arms is at the center of the cross

Economy

Economy - overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994 contributed
to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and strong GDP
growth in 1995-96. In 1996, there was increased mineral and petroleum
exploration, and a new investment law that allows for repatriation of
capital dividends has drawn more investment to the island. Upon coming
to power in August 1996, President FERNANDEZ nevertheless inherited a
trouble-ridden economy hampered by a pressured peso, a large external
debt, nearly bankrupt state-owned enterprises, and a manufacturing
sector hindered by daily power outages. In December, FERNANDEZ
presented a bold economic reform package - including such reforms as
the devaluation of the peso, income tax cuts, a 50% increase in sales
taxes, reduced import tariffs, and increased gasoline prices - in an
attempt to create a market-oriented economy that can compete
internationally. The legislature, however, has been slow to act on
several of the economic measures.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $29.8 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $3,670 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 13%
industry: 32%
services: 55% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 12.5% (1995)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
by occupation : agriculture 50%, services and government 32%, industry
18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.8 billion
expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2,450,400 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: 6.506 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 613 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco,
rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products,
meat, eggs

Exports:
total value: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
partners : US 45%, EU 34%, Canada, Japan, Puerto Rico (1995)

Imports:
total value: $5.3 billion (f.o.b., 1996 est.)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals
partners: US 44%, EU 16%, Venezuela 11%, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico,
Japan (1995)

Debt - external: $3.6 billion (1997)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 14.206 (January
1997), 13.775 (1996), 13.597 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676 (1993),
12.774 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Dominican Republic:Communications

Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
radio relay network
international : 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station - 1
Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)

@Dominican Republic:Transportation

Railways:
total: 757 km
standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway); 240
km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m, 0.762-m,
1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
total : 12,300 km
paved: 6,064 km
unpaved: 6,236 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports and harbors: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de
Macoris, Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
(1996 est.)

Airports: 31 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 26
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m : 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 2,081,709 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 1,310,534 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 79,860 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $116 million (1994)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.4% (1994)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs destined
for the US through Puerto Rico
______________________________________________________________________

ECUADOR

@Ecuador:Geography

Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the
Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total : 283,560 sq km
land: 276,840 sq km
water: 6,720 sq km
note: includes Galapagos Islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:
total: 2,010 km
border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
Galapagos Islands
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
(sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 5%
permanent pastures: 18%
forests and woodland: 56%
other: 15% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 5,560 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity;
periodic droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty,
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

@Ecuador:People

Population: 12,105,124 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 37% (male 2,252,260; female 2,174,004)
15-64 years: 59% (male 3,529,606; female 3,619,002)
65 years and over : 4% (male 248,105; female 282,147) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.93% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 5.28 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 71.44 years
male: 68.83 years
female: 74.17 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.87 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and Spanish) 55%, Amerindian
25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian languages (especially
Quechua)

Literacy:
definition : age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.1%
male: 92%
female: 88.2% (1995 est.)

@Ecuador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form: Ecuador
local long form: Republica del Ecuador
local short form : Ecuador

Data code: EC

Government type: republic

National capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi,
Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua,
Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence of
Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate persons
ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Rosalia ARTEAGA Serrano de Cordova (since 10
August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
head of government: President Fabian ALARCON Rivera (since 11 February
1997); Vice President Rosalia ARTEAGA Serrano de Cordova (since 10
August 1996); note - the president is both the chief of state and head
of government
note : in an unusual, out of cycle change in executive power, Congress
on 11 February 1997 elected then Congress President ALARCON to be
Interim President until August 1998 after ousting former President
BUCARAM because of "mental incapacity;" ARTEAGA remained vice
president
cabinet : Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 19 May 1996;
runoff election held 7 July 1996; note - because of the February 1997
unusual change in executive power, the next presidential elections
will take place in 1998
election results : runoff election; percent of vote - Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz 54%, Jaime NEBOT 46%; note - in February 1997, Congress elected
ALARCON to be Interim President until August 1998, with 57 of 82
Congressmen voting in favor of him

Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional
(82 seats; 12 members are popularly elected at large nationally to
serve four-year terms; 70 members are popularly elected by province
for two-year terms)
elections : last held 19 May 1996 (next to be held 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PSC
27, PRE 19, DP 12, P-NP 8, ID 4, FRA 3, MPD 2, PCE 2, CFP 1,
independents and other 4; note - defections by members of congress are
commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats
held by the various parties

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected by
Congress

Political parties and leaders:
Center-Right parties: Social Christian Party or PSC [Jaime NEBOT
Saadi, president]; Ecuadorian Conservative Party or PCE [Freddy BRAVO]
Center-Left parties: Democratic Left or ID [Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos,
leader]; Popular Democracy or DP [Jamil MAHUAD, leader]; Radical
Alfarista Front or FRA [Fabian ALARCON, director]
Populist parties: Roldosist Party or PRE [Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
director]; Concentration of Popular Forces or CFP [Averroes BUCARAM,
leader]; Popular Revolutionary Action or APRE [Frank VARGAS Passos,
leader]; Pachakutik-New Country or P-NP [Freddy EHLERS]
Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement or MPD [Juan Jose
CASTELLO, leader]

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Fernando
FLORES
chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco
consulate(s): Newark

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Leslie ALEXANDER
embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre and Avenida Patria, Quito
mailing address: APO AA 34039
telephone : [593] (2) 562-890
FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double
width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center
of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does
not bear a coat of arms

Economy

Economy - overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
agricultural areas. As an exporter of primary products such as oil,
bananas, and shrimp, fluctuations in world market prices can have a
substantial domestic impact. Growth has been uneven in recent years as
the government has repeatedly initiated ill-conceived fiscal
stabilization measures. The populist government of Abdala BUCARAM
Ortiz proposed a major currency reform in 1996, but popular discontent
with new austerity measures and rampant official corruption undermined
his government's position. Congress replaced BUCARAM with Fabian
ALARCON in February 1997. ALARCON has adopted a minimalist economic
program that puts off major decisions until the next elected
government takes office in August 1998. Ecuador has joined the Word
Trade Organization in 1996, but has failed to comply with many of its
accession commitments. Growth slowed to 2.0% in 1996, due to a lack of
investment caused by political uncertainty and high domestic interest
rates.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $47 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,100 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 13%
industry: 38%
services: 49% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 26% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 3.4 million
by occupation: agriculture 29%, manufacturing 18%, commerce 15%,
services and other activities 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 8.5% with widespread underemployment (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $3.6 billion (1997)
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper
products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 2.754 million kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 9.27 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 600 kWh (1996)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes,
manioc, plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy
products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports:
total value: $4.9 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: petroleum 37%, bananas 20%, shrimp 13%, cocoa 2%, coffee
3%
partners : US 39%, Latin America 25%, EU countries 22%, Asia 12%

Imports:
total value: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles, machinery,
chemicals
partners: US 32%, EU 19%, Latin America 35%, Asia 11%

Debt - external: $12.6 billion (1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993)
note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other
countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 3,674.9 (January 1997), 3,189.5
(1996), 2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Ecuador:Communications

Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)

@Ecuador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 965 km (single track)
narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
total : 43,106 km
paved: 7,932 km
unpaved: 35,174 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto
Bolivar, San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,401 GRT/179,142 DWT
ships by type: container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 14,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 179 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 143
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m : 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 111 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 33 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada
Ecuatoriana, includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana),
National Police

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 3,077,812 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 2,079,537 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 125,185 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $390.2 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.1% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: three sections of the boundary with Peru are
in dispute

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer of
coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit
narcotics; important money-laundering hub
______________________________________________________________________

EGYPT

@Egypt:Geography

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land : 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New
Mexico

Land boundaries:
total: 2,689 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
arable land: 2%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 98% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 32,460 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to
urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below
Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral
reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from
agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very
limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the
only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining
natural resources

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between
Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal,
shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size,
and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle
Eastern geopolitics

@Egypt:People

Population: 64,824,466 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36% (male 12,080,281; female 11,556,970)
15-64 years: 60% (male 19,616,790; female 19,228,163)
65 years and over: 4% (male 1,050,540; female 1,291,722) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 1.89% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.82 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 8.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 61.75 years
male: 59.8 years
female: 63.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.4%
male: 63.6%
female: 38.8% (1995 est.)

@Egypt:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: none
former : United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

National capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah,
Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina',
Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October
1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4
January 1996)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections : president nominated by the People's Assembly for a
six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national,
popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next
to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's
nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly
or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10
appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the
Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a
consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88
appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 29 November 1995 (next to be
held NA 2000); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be
held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP
72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party - NDP 317,
independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1,
Liberals 1; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%,
independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party; legal
opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad SIRAJ
AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid Muhi al-DIN; Socialist
Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party,
Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr
al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab
Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party, Anwar
AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party, Muhammad
'ABDAL-'AL
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban
against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by
the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
(associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer),
CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC,
OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UN Security Council
(temporary), UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP,
UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UNTAES, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general : Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone : [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3572000
branch office: Alexandria

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white,
and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of
Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria
that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three
green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered
in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: By the end of the 1980s Egypt - hit by the
collapse of the world oil market and servicing a foreign debt totaling
about $50 billion - faced crises in virtually all economic sectors.
Problems of low productivity and poor economic management were
compounded by the adverse social effects of large population growth
rates, high inflation, and massive urban overcrowding. In the face of
these pressures, in 1991, Egypt undertook wide-ranging macroeconomic
stabilization and structural reform measures. This reform effort has
been supported by three successive IMF arrangements, the last of which
was concluded in October 1996. Egypt's reform efforts - and its
participation in the Gulf war coalition - also led to massive debt
relief under the Paris Club arrangements. Egypt's foreign debt fell to
about $31 billion at yearend 1996. Although the pace of reform has
been uneven and slower than envisaged under the IMF programs,
substantial progress has been made in improving macroeconomic
performance - budget deficits have been slashed while foreign reserves
in 1996 were at an all-time high - and in moving toward a more
decentralized, market-oriented economy. Egypt was able to capitalize
on its progress during the third Middle East/North Africa economic
conference which it hosted in November 1996. Egypt's President MUBARAK
told reporters that Egypt had concluded deals worth $10 billion in
investment during the conference, 20 times the country's estimated
total direct foreign investment for the 1995/96 fiscal year. According
to press reports, Egypt and foreign investors agreed on nine
megaprojects, including the export of liquefied natural gas from Egypt
to Turkey, estimated at $2 billion to $4 billion. Egypt has a
broad-based inventory of geographic, human, and physical assets which
in a liberalized market environment could spur rapid, sustainable
growth into the next century. But rapid population growth continues to
cast a shadow over economic prospects.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $183.9 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 4.9% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 16%
industry : 34%
services: 50% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.3% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 17.4 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, services, including government 38%,
industry 22% (1990 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.4% (FY95/96 official estimate)

Budget:
revenues: $17.4 billion
expenditures: $18.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5
billion (FY95/96)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, petroleum,
construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 13.04 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 47.89 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 723 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits,
vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch
about 140,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value : $4.6 billion (f.o.b., FY95/96 est.)
commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports:
total value: $13.8 billion (c.i.f., FY95/96 est.)
commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, EU, Japan

Debt - external: $31 billion (yearend 1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (E) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (E) per US$1 - 3.4 (November 1994),
3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992); market rate - 3.3900
(January 1997), 3.3880 (1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994), 3.3718
(1993), 3.3386 (1992)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June

@Egypt:Communications

Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but inadequate
for present requirements and undergoing extensive upgrading
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave
radio relay
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)

@Egypt:Transportation

Railways:
total: 4,751 km
standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
double track)

Highways:
total: 50,000 km
paved: 15,000 km
unpaved : 35,000 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo
Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta); Suez Canal, 193.5
km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing vessels drawing up
to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural gas
460 km

Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur
Safajah, Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
total: 156 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,151,960 GRT/1,771,863
DWT
ships by type: bulk 21, cargo 65, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
14, passenger 35, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16,
short-sea passenger 3 (1996 est.)

Airports: 81 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 73
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m : 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 10 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 16,942,953 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 10,987,037 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 672,197 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $3.28 billion (FY95/96)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 8.2% (FY95/96)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administrative boundary with Sudan does not
coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib Triangle,"
a barren area of 20,580 sq km

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian
heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit stop for
Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish from Lebanon
and Syria
______________________________________________________________________

EL SALVADOR

@El Salvador:Geography

Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between
Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
total: 21,040 sq km
land: 20,720 sq km
water: 320 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November
to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
arable land: 27%
permanent crops: 8%
permanent pastures: 29%
forests and woodland : 5%
other: 31% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note: smallest Central American country and only one
without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

@El Salvador:People

Population: 5,661,827 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 1,084,198; female 1,038,248)
15-64 years: 57% (male 1,538,609; female 1,709,756)
65 years and over : 5% (male 133,038; female 157,978) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.6% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 27.22 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.44 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 30.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 69.27 years
male : 65.89 years
female: 72.81 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.13 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic groups: mestizo 94%, Amerindian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout the
country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male : 73.5%
female: 69.8% (1995 est.)

@El Salvador:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Government type: republic

National capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular -
departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June 1994);
Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Armando CALDERON Sol (since 1 June
1994); Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante (since 1 June 1994);
note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by
popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 20 March 1994,
with a run-off election held 24 April 1994 (next to be held NA March
1999)
election results: Armando CALDERON Sol elected president; percent of
vote - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas
(CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other 10.49%;
because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election was held
and the results were as follows - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 68.35%,
Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea
Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to
serve three-year terms)
elections : last held 16 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 2000)
election results: percent of vote by party - ARENA 35.4%, FMLN 34.3%,
PCN 8.1%, PDC 7.9%, CD 3.8%, PRSC 3.4%, PLD 3.2%, MU 2.1%, PD 1.0%,
other 0.8%; seats by party - ARENA 28, FMLN 27, PCN 11, PDC 9, PRSC 3,
CD 2, PLD 2, MU 1, PD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are selected by
the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance or ARENA
[Gloria SALGUERO Gross, president]; Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front or FMLN [Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel
GONZALEZ), general coordinator]; Christian Democratic Party or PDC
[Ronal UMANA, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN
[Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general]; Democratic Convergence or CD
[Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Unity Movement Party or MU [Jorge
MARTINEZ Menendez, president]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio
Waldo SALGADO, founder]; Democratic Party or PD (breakaway from FMLN)
[Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder, Ana Guadalupe MARTINEZ, leader]; Social
Christian Renovation Party or PRSC (breakaway from PDC) [Abraham
RODRIGUEZ, founder]

Political pressure groups and leaders: labor organizations -
Salvadoran Communal Union or UCS (peasant association); General
Confederation of Workers or CGT (moderate); United Workers Front or
FUT; business organizations - Productive Alliance or AP
(conservative); National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen or
FENAPES (conservative)

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Anne PATTERSON
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San
Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
telephone: [503] 278-4444
FAX : [503] 278-6011

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of
Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white
band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to
the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
pattern centered in the white band

Economy

Economy - overview: El Salvador possesses a fast-growing
entrepreneurial economy in which 90% of economic activity is in
private hands, with growth averaging 5% since 1990. Yet, because the
1980s were a decade of civil war and stagnation, per capita GDP has
not regained the level of the late 1970s. The rebound in the 1990s
stems from the government program, in conjunction with the IMF, of
privatization, deregulation, and fiscal stabilization. The economy now
is oriented more toward manufacturing and services compared with
agriculture. The sizable trade deficits are in the main covered by
remittances from the large number of Salvadorans abroad.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.2 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $2,080 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry : 27%
services: 59% (1995)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 7.4% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.2 million (1996 est.)
by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 7.6% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $1.75 billion
expenditures: $1.82 billion, including capital expenditures of $317
million (1997 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals,
fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1993)

Electricity - capacity: 900,000 kW (1996)

Electricity - production: 3.32 billion kWh (1996)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 580 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed,
cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products; shrimp

Exports:
total value: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: coffee, sugarcane; shrimp; textiles, chemicals
partners: US, Guatemala, Germany, Costa Rica, Honduras

Imports:
total value: $3.2 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities : raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Japan

Debt - external: $2.54 billion (yearend 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $763 million (1996)
note: US has committed $250 million in aid to El Salvador for 1992-96

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 (end of period) -
8.755 (January 1997), 8.755 (1996), 8.755 (1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670
(1993), 9.170 (1992), 8.080 (1991)
note: as of 1 June 1990, the rate is based on the average of the
buying and selling rates, set on a weekly basis, for official receipts
and payments, imports of petroleum, and coffee exports; prior to that
date, a system of floating was in effect

Fiscal year: calendar year

@El Salvador:Communications

Telephones: 300,000 (1996 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international : satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean);
connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 18, FM 80, shortwave 2

Radios: 1 million (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 11 (1996 est.)

Televisions: 600,000 (1996 est.)

@El Salvador:Transportation

Railways:
total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned, unusable,
or operating at reduced capacity)
narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
total: 12,320 km
paved: 1,712 km (including 110 km of expressways)
unpaved : 10,608 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union,
Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 72 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 52
over 3,047 m : 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 48 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 20
914 to 1,523 m: 20 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 1,330,498 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 844,314 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males : 64,530 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $101 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 0.9% (1996)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for
local consumption
______________________________________________________________________

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

@Equatorial Guinea:Geography

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between
Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28,050 sq km
land: 28,050 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries:
total: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits of
gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
arable land : 5%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 4%
forests and woodland: 46%
other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: violent windstorms

Environment - current issues: tap water is not potable;
desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship
Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note: insular and continental regions rather widely
separated

@Equatorial Guinea:People

Population: 442,516 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 95,636; female 95,090)
15-64 years : 53% (male 111,801; female 123,257)
65 years and over: 4% (male 7,407; female 9,325) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.57% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 39.33 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 13.67 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 95.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 53.46 years
male: 51.2 years
female: 55.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.11 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio Muni
(primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan
practices

Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 78.5%
male: 89.6%
female: 68.1% (1995 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
former : Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Government type: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

National capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979)
head of government: Prime Minister Serafin Seriche DOUGAN (since April
1996); Vice Prime Minister Francisco Javier Ndongo MBENGONO (since
April 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote to a seven-year term;
election last held 25 February 1996 (next to be held NA February 2003)
election results : President OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected without
opposition; percent of popular vote - NA

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Peoples Representatives or
Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (80 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held November 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE
68, CSD 6, UDS 5, CLD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Brig.
Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]
opposition parties: Convergence for Social Democracy or CSD [Santiago
Obama Ndong, president]; Democratic Social Union or UDS [Camelo MODU,
general secretary]; Liberal Democratic Convention or CLD [Alfonso Nsue
MIFUMU, president]; Liberal Party or PL [Santos PASCUAL]; National
Democratic Union or UDENA [Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president]; Party of
the Social Democratic Coalition or PCSD [Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu,
general coordinater]; Party of Progress or PP [Severo MOTO Nsa,
president]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Casiano Masi
Edu]; Popular Union or UP [Juan BITUI, president]; Party for Progress
of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo Moto NSA, president]; Progressive
Democratic Alliance or ADP [Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president];
Social Democratic and Popular Convergence or CSDP [Secundino Oyono
Agueng Ada, general secretary]; Social Democratic Party or PSD
[Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha Balinga Alene, general secretary];
Socialist Party of Equatorial Guinea or PSGE [Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez,
general secretary]

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
chancery: Suite 405, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone : [1] (202) 393-0525
FAX: [1] (202) 393-0348

Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy
in Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations
with Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde,
Cameroon

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the
coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six
yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace,
Justice)

Economy

Economy - overview: Farming, forestry, and fishing account for about
half of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although
pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for
hard currency earnings, the deterioration of the rural economy under
successive brutal regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led
growth. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the
IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of the government's gross
corruption and mismanagement. Businesses, for the most part, are owned
by government officials and their family members. Undeveloped natural
resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial
gold. Oil exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US,
French, and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful and has
contributed to Equatorial Guinea's strong growth rates in the early
1990s. The country responded favorably to the devaluation of the CFA
franc in January 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $328 million (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 11.2% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $800 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 50%
industry: 14%
services: 36% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10.9% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues: $27 million
expenditures: $34.1 million, including capital expenditures of $11.2
million (1994)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1994 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 23,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports:
total value : $83.5 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: timber, petroleum, cocoa
partners: US 34%, Japan 16%, Spain 15%, China 12%, Cote d'Ivoire,
Nigeria

Imports:
total value: $52.3 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
partners: Spain 51%, Cameroon 21%, France 6%, US 4%

Debt - external: $252 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 541.69 (January 1997),
511.55 (1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69
(1992)
note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
1948

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Equatorial Guinea:Communications

Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
(Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)

@Equatorial Guinea:Transportation

Railways:
total : 0 km

Highways:
total: 2,820 km
paved : 0 km
unpaved: 2,820 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,997 GRT/7,105 DWT
ships by type: cargo 1, passenger 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 3

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 3 (1996 est.)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
National Police

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 95,788 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 48,696 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.5 million (FY93/94)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon because
of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
______________________________________________________________________

ERITREA

Introduction

Historical perspective: on 29 May 1991, ISAIAS Afworke, secretary
general of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which
then served as the country's legislative body, announced the formation
of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in preparation for the
23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for the Autonomous Region
of Eritrea; the referendum resulted in a landslide vote for
independence which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993

@Eritrea:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti and
Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total : 121,320 sq km
land: 121,320 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
total: 1,630 km
border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 2,234 km total; mainland on Red Sea 1,151 km, islands in
Red Sea 1,083 km

Maritime claims: NA

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter
in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually); semiarid
in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during June-September
except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Kobar Sink -75 m
highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
(petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 48%
forests and woodland: 20%
other : 19% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; desertification; soil
erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
Species
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia on
27 April 1993

@Eritrea:People

Population: 3,589,687 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 43% (male 781,169; female 770,497)
15-64 years: 54% (male 963,542; female 966,083)
65 years and over: 3% (male 55,811; female 52,585) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 43.96 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 15.26 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 34.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: it is estimated that between 200,000 and 350,000 Eritrean
refugees were still living in Sudan in mid-1997

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population : 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 117.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 50.61 years
male: 48.85 years
female : 52.42 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.47 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Eritrean(s)
adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic groups: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar 4%,
Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Italian, Tigre and Kunama, Tigrinya,
minor tribal languages

@Eritrea:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: State of Eritrea
conventional short form: Eritrea
local long form : Hagere Ertra
local short form: Ertra
former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Government type: transitional government
note : following a successful referendum on independence for the
Autonomous Region of Eritrea on 23-25 April 1993, a National Assembly,
composed entirely of the Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice or
PFDJ, was established as a transitional legislature; a Constitutional
Commission was also established to draft a constitution; ISAIAS
Afworki was elected president by the transitional legislature pending
the promulgation of a constitution and popular elections

National capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akele
Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye
note: in May 1995 the National Assembly adopted a resolution stating
that the administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been
established by former colonial powers, would consist of only six
provinces when the new constitution, then being drafted, would go into
effect sometime in 1998; the new provinces, which have not been
recommended by the US Board on Geographic Names for recognition by the
US government, pending acceptable definition of the boundaries, are:
Anseba, Debub, Debubawi, Gash-Barka, Maakel, and Semanawi Keyih Bahri

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24 May
(1993)

Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993; the
promulgation of a draft constitution is expected in 1998

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note - the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993 did
not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the final
version of the constitution, to be promulgated some time in 1998, will
follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 and extend suffrage
to all persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch:
chief of state: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note -
the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki (since 8 June 1993); note
- the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
note: the president is head of the State Council and National Assembly
elections: president elected by the National Assembly; election last
held 8 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997)
election results: ISAIAS Afworki elected president; percent of
National Assembly vote - ISAIAS Afworki 95%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; term
limits not established pending new constitution)
elections: 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old Central
Committee of the EPLF) and 75 directly elected members serve as the
country's legislative body until country-wide elections are held in
1997

Judicial branch: Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
Justice or PFDJ, the only party recognized by the government [ISAIAS
Afworki, PETROS Solomon]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ;
Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed]; Eritrean
Liberation Front - United Organization or ELF-UO [Mohammed Said
NAWUD]; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council or ELF-RC
[Ahmed NASSER]

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat
(nonsignatory user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai
chancery: 1708 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone : [1] (202) 319-1991
FAX: [1] (202) 319-1304

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador John HICKS
embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt St., Asmara
mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
telephone: [291] (1) 120004
FAX : [291] (1) 127584

Flag description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle

Economy

Economy - overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April 1993,
Eritrea faced the bitter economic problems of a small, desperately
poor African country. Most of the population must continue to depend
on subsistence farming. Domestic output (GDP) is substantially
augmented by worker remittances from abroad. Government revenues come
from custom duties and income and sales taxes. Road construction is a
top domestic priority. Shortages persist in housing, education, and
health care. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia
and has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. Ethiopia is largely
dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign commerce.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 3.9% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $570 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 19%
industry: 18%
services : 63% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $214 million
expenditures: $397 million, including capital expenditures of $78
million (1995 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 73,000 kW (1995)

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton,
tobacco, coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats);
fish

Exports:
total value: $81 million (1995 est.)
commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles
partners: Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, UK, US, Yemen

Imports:
total value : $404 million (1995 est.)
commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products
partners: Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Italy, United Arab Emirates

Debt - external: $162 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency
used; note - new Eritrean currency, the nakfa, to be circulated in
1997

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of the period) - 6.4260
(December 1996), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.000
(fixed rate 1992-93); note - following independence from Ethiopia,
Eritrea continued to use Ethiopian currency
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Eritrea:Communications

Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
domestic : very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most
of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders to
improve the system
international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA

@Eritrea:Transportation

Railways:
total: 307 km
narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)
note: nonoperational since 1978 except for an about 5 km stretch that
was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the remainder and
of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and Asmara (formerly
Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)

Highways:
total: 3,930 km
paved: 841 km
unpaved : 3,089 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
total : 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,573 GRT/13,593
DWT (1996 est.)

Airports: 14 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 4
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total : 10
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: NA

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: NA

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $40 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of the
Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to
arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ
______________________________________________________________________

ESTONIA

@Estonia:Geography

Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total : 45,226 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km
water: 2,015 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont
combined

Land boundaries:
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

Coastline: 3,794 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
neighboring states
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber,
cambrian blue clay

Land use:
arable land : 27%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 7%
forests and woodland: 48%
other : 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide
from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of
soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former
Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade
lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected
by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified : none of the selected agreements

@Estonia:People

Population: 1,436,558 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 141,814; female 136,895)
15-64 years: 67% (male 460,067; female 495,935)
65 years and over: 14% (male 65,302; female 136,545) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.14% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 9.04 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 14.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
total population: 0.87 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 68.38 years
male : 62.39 years
female: 74.67 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.29 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Ethnic groups: Estonian 64.2%, Russian 28.7%, Ukrainian 2.7%,
Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.9% (1995)

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, others include Baptist, Methodist,
7th Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, 7th Day
Baptist, Judaism

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male : 100%
female: 100% (1989 est.)

@Estonia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form : Estonia
local long form: Eesti Vabariik
local short form: Eesti
former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Government type: republic

National capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond):
Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru maakond
(Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva), Laane maakond
(Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu maakond (Parnu), Polva
maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare maakond (Kuessaare),
Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga), Viljandi maakond
(Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their
administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (acting since NA March
1995; confirmed 17 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister,
approved by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he
or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after 3 rounds of
balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus
members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between
the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last
held August-September 1996 (next to be held fall 2001); prime minister
nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results: Lennart MERI elected president by an electoral
assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI
and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennert MERI 61%,
Arnold RUUTEL 39%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats;
members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections : last held 5 March 1995 (next to be held NA 1999)
election results: percent of vote by party - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K
14.17%, Pro Patria and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and
Right-Wingers 5.0%; seats by party - KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria
8, Our Home is Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU
[Tiit VAHI, chairman] made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party, Country
People's Party/Farmer's Assembly, Rural Union, and Pensioners' and
Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman];
Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Union of Pro Patria or
Fatherland League (Isamaa) [Toivo JURGENSON, chairman]; National
Independence Party or ERSP [Kelam TUNNE, chairman]; Our Home is
Estonia made up of 2 parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian
People's Party of Estonia; United Peoples Party [Viktor ANDREJEV,
chairman]; Russian Party of Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV, chairman];
Moderates or M made up of 2 parties: Social Democratic Party and Rural
Center Party; Social Democratic Party [Eiki NESTOR, chairman]; Rural
Center Party [Vambo KAAL, chairman]; Right-Wingers [Ulo NUGIS,
chairman]; Republican Conservative [Vootele HANSEN];
Development/Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN, chairwoman], note -
party was created by defectors from Center Party in late spring 1996,
now holds 6 or 7 seats in Parliament

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EBRD,
ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS,
IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH,
UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lauri LEPIK
chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Lawrence P. TAYLOR
embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
mailing address: American Embassy, Tallinn; PSC 78, Box T; APO AE
09723
telephone: [372] (6) 312-021
FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990
- three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white

Economy

Economy - overview: Estonia continues to experience strong economic
growth after its economy bottomed out in 1993. Bolstered by a
widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe, Estonia
has adhered to disciplined fiscal and financial policies and has led
the FSU countries in pursuing economic reform. Monthly inflation has
been held to 2% in 1995-96. Following four years of decline, Estonia's
GDP grew at 3% in 1995 and 1996. Despite these positive economic
indicators, the current account deficit is widening. The resident IMF
representative in Estonia has been worried since early 1996 about a
rising public sector deficit boosted by local government spending.
Small- and medium-scale privatization is essentially complete, and
large-scale privatization is progressing gradually. In 1996, Estonia's
national airline was privatized; in 1997 Estonia plans to privatize
large infrastructure, i.e., Eesti Energia, Tallinn Port, Estonian
Telecom, and Oil Shale. Estonia has successfully reoriented its trade
toward the West, two-thirds of exports now going to Western markets.
Estonia's free trade policies were the cornerstone of its negotiations
with the European Union, and led to the signing of an association
agreement in June 1995. Estonia was the only Baltic state not to have
a transition period imposed by the EU prior to its implementation of a
free trade agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $8.1 billion (1996 estimate as
extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,560 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 10%
industry: 37%
services : 53% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 23% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 750,000 (1992)
by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry
20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1996 official est.)

Budget:
revenues: $620 million
expenditures : $582 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(January-October 1995)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
apparel

Industrial production growth rate: 3% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 3.29 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 8.6 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,005 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and
dairy products; fish

Exports:
total value: $2 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: textiles 16%, food products 16%, machinery and equipment
16%, metals 9% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany, Latvia (1995)

Imports:
total value : $3.1 billion (c.i.f., 1996)
commodities: machinery and equipment 29%, foodstuffs 14%, minerals
13%, textiles 13%, metals 12% (1995)
partners: Finland, Russia, Sweden, Germany (1995)

Debt - external: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993)
note: Western commitments $285 million (including international
financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 12.6 (January 1997), 12.410
(December 1996), 12.034 (1996), 11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223
(1993); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed
rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Estonia:Communications

Telephones: 400,000 (1994 est.)

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being made
piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
subscriber service
domestic : substantial investment has been made in cellular systems
which are operational throughout Estonia
international: international traffic is carried to the other former
Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international
gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic,
submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits
everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital
network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: 3 commercial broadcast stations, 1
government broadcast station (1994)

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1993)
note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first
and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)

@Estonia:Transportation

Railways:
total : 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated
industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
total: 14,992 km
paved: 8,096 km (including 65 km of expressways)
unpaved : 6,896 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports and harbors: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,492 GRT/478,441 DWT
ships by type : bulk 7, cargo 31, container 4, oil tanker 3,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4 (1996 est.)

Airports: 22 (1994 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1994 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m : 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air
Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard,
Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and
border troops)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 353,616 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 277,489 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 10,396 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $35 million (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a
technical border agreement in December 1996, which Estonia is prepared
to sign and ratify in January 1997; Estonia had claimed over 2,000 sq
km territory in the Narva and Pechory regions in Russia - based on
boundary established under the 1920 Peace Treaty of Tartu

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from
Southwest Asia and the Caucasus, and cocaine from Latin America to
Western Europe and Scandinavia
______________________________________________________________________

ETHIOPIA

Introduction

Historical perspective: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's
Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian
government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a
new constitution was promulgated in December 1994 and national and
regional popular elections were held in May and June 1995

@Ethiopia:Geography

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 1,127,127 sq km
land: 1,119,683 sq km
water: 7,444 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
total: 5,311 km
border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Denakil -125 m
highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use:
arable land: 12%
permanent crops : 1%
permanent pastures: 40%
forests and woodland: 25%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts

Environment - current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Ozone
Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Desertification, Environmental Modification,
Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geography - note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was
lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993

@Ethiopia:People

Population: 58,732,577 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 46% (male 13,492,323; female 13,444,656)
15-64 years: 51% (male 15,167,806; female 15,020,499)
65 years and over: 3% (male 745,554; female 861,739) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.67% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 45.59 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 17.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya and Somalia
for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected to
continue in 1997; entry into Ethiopia of Sudanese and Somalis fleeing
the fighting in their own countries is also continuing in 1997

Sex ratio:
at birth : 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 121.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 46.62 years
male : 45.48 years
female: 47.8 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.94 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella
6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist 12%,
other 3%-8%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali,
Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 35.5%
male: 45.5%
female : 25.3% (1995 est.)

@Ethiopia:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: YeItyop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: YeItyop'iya
abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Government type: federal republic

National capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative regions
(astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1 federal
capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benshangul/Gumaz; Gambela;
Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples;
Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : President NEGASSO Gidada (since 22 August 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August 1995)
cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994
constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
approved by the Council of People's Representatives
elections : president elected by the Council of People's
Representatives for a six-year term; election last held June 1995
(next to be held NA 2001); prime minister designated by the party in
power following legislative elections
election results: NEGASSO Gidada elected president; percent of vote by
the Council of People's Representatives - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of
the Federation or upper chamber (117 seats; members are chosen by
state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the Council of People's
Representatives or lower chamber (548 seats; members are directly
elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve
five-year terms); note - the upper chamber represents the ethnic
interests of the regional governments
elections: regional and national popular elections were held in May
and June 1995 (next to be held NA 2000) and the Federal Parliamentary
Assembly assumed legislative power on 21 August 1995
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - NA; note - EPRDF won
nearly all seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the national
legislature

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
Democratic Front or EPRDF [MELES Zenawi]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Oromo Liberation Front or OLF;
All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's
Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed
since MENGISTU'S resignation, including several Islamic militant
groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGADD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador David H. SHINN (17 June 1996)
embassy : Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: [251] (1) 550666
FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from
the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the
three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and
the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African
countries upon independence that they became known as the pan-African
colors

Economy

Economy - overview: Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic
problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in the
world. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for more
than half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee
generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector suffers from
frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation practices, and
deterioration of internal security conditions. The manufacturing
sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the agricultural sector.
Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than 10% of agriculture, is
state-run. The government is considering selling off a portion of
state-owned plants and is implementing reform measures that are
gradually liberalizing the economy. A major medium-term problem is the
improvement of roads, water supply, and other parts of an
infrastructure badly neglected during years of civil strife.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 7.7% (1995 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $430 (1995 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 57%
industry: 10%
services: 33% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force:
total: 18 million
by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
revenues : $1 billion
expenditures: $1.48 billion, including capital expenditures of $415
million (FY96/97)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals
processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 630,000 kW (1991)

Electricity - production: 1.27 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
potatoes, other vegetables; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Exports:
total value : $423 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: coffee, leather products, gold (1995)
partners: Germany 18%, Japan 13%, Djibouti 10%, Saudi Arabia 8% (1993)

Imports:
total value: $1.15 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals (1995)
partners : Saudi Arabia 13.3%, Italy 11.6%, US 10.2%, Germany 9.1%,
Japan (1993)

Debt - external: $4.3 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $367 million (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 (end of period) - 6.4260 (December
1996), 6.4260 (1996), 6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate
1992-93); fixed at 2.070 before 1992
note: since May 1993, the birr market rate has been determined in an
interbank market supported by weekly wholesale auction; prior to that
date, the official rate was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July

@Ethiopia:Communications

Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate
for government use
domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay
international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay
to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1
Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.9 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)

@Ethiopia:Transportation

Railways:
total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
total: 28,360 km
paved : 4,254 km
unpaved: 24,106 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: none; Ethiopia is landlocked but by agreement with
Eritrea may use the ports of Assab and Massawa

Merchant marine:
total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 60,081 GRT/84,686 DWT
ships by type: cargo 7, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 3 (1996
est.)

Airports: 59 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total : 13
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 6 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 46
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 31 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police
note: following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia's naval facilities
remained in Eritrea's possession; current reorganization plans do not
include a navy

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 13,257,668 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 6,889,800 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 605,030 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $110 million (1996)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: most of the southern half of the boundary
with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute
with Somalia over the Ogaden

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (chat)
for local use and regional export
______________________________________________________________________

EUROPA ISLAND

(possession of France) 

@Europa Island:Geography

Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
total: 28 sq km
land: 28 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: about 0.16 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
arable land: NA%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : NA%
forests and woodland: NA%
other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km (1993)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: wildlife sanctuary

@Europa Island:People

Population: no indigenous inhabitants
note: there is a small military garrison

@Europa Island:Government

Country name:
conventional long form : none
conventional short form: Europa Island
local long form: none
local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Dependency status: possession of France; administered by a high
commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

National capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag description: the flag of France is used

Economy

Economy - overview: no economic activity

@Europa Island:Communications

Communications - note: 1 meteorological station

@Europa Island:Transportation

Ports and harbors: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: claimed by Madagascar
______________________________________________________________________

FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS)
(Islas Malvinas)]

(dependent territory of the UK) 

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Geography

Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic Ocean,
east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 12,170 sq km
land: 12,170 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
about 200 small islands

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
continental shelf: 200 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
arable land : 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 99%
forests and woodland: 0%
other : 1% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to : NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors;
short growing season

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):People

Population: 2,432 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
at birth: NA male(s)/female
under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
total population : NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: NA years
male: NA years
female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
noun: Falkland Islander(s)
adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic groups: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
Adventist

Languages: English

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Government

Country name:
conventional long form : Colony of the Falkland Islands
conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Dependency status: dependent territory of the UK

Government type: NA

National capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state : Queen ELIZABETH II of the UK (since 6 February 1952)
head of government: Governor Richard RALPH (since 29 January 1996)
cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative
Council, two ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
secretary), and the governor
elections : none; the queen is a hereditary monarch; governor
appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (10 seats, 8
elected; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held NA October 1993 (next was to be held NA October
1998)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice is non-resident

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (dependent territory of the
UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (dependent territory of
the UK)

Flag description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered
on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram
(sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the sailing ship
Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a scroll at the bottom
bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

Economy

Economy - overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
mainly sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of the
work force. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops furnish
winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to the UK
and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So
far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been
unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987, when the
government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's
health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the
Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The
islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around the
islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial
reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day. An agreement
between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1995 seeks to defuse
licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign interest
in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - real growth rate: NA%

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Inflation rate - consumer price index: NA%

Labor force:
total: 1,100 (est.)
by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

Budget:
revenues: $53.4 million
expenditures: $53.1 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1994-95 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: NA kW

Electricity - production: NA kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture - products: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep farming,
small dairy herds

Exports:
total value: $7.6 million (1995)
commodities: wool, hides, meat
partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports:
total value : $24.7 million (1995)
commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery
partners : UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1992)

Debt - external: $NA

Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
note: UK, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments totaled $18 million
(1993-94)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (F) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (F) per US$1 - 0.6023 (January 1997),
0.6403 (1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664
(1992); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Communications

Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points
on both islands
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Televisions: NA

@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas):Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 510 km
paved: 30 km
unpaved : 480 km

Ports and harbors: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports: 5 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army,
Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
______________________________________________________________________

FAROE ISLANDS

(part of the Danish realm) 

@Faroe Islands:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea and
the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland to
Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 1,399 sq km
land: 1,399 sq km
water: 0 sq km (some lakes and streams)

Area - comparative: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,117 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish, whales

Land use:
arable land: 6%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 94% (1996)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: archipelago of 17 inhabited islands and one
uninhabited island, and a few uninhabited islets; strategically
located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic;
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands

@Faroe Islands:People

Population: 39,873 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 25% (male 4,960; female 4,812)
15-64 years: 60% (male 12,913; female 11,117)
65 years and over: 15% (male 2,708; female 3,363) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: -6.36% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.46 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.05 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -38.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.37 years
male: 75.41 years
female : 81.32 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun : Faroese (singular and plural)
adjective: Faroese

Ethnic groups: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA
note: similar to Denmark proper

@Faroe Islands:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Faroe Islands
local long form : none
local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Dependency status: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

Government type: NA

National capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972),
represented by High Commissioner Ms. Vibeke LARSEN, chief
administrative officer (since mid-1995)
head of government : Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15 September
1994)
cabinet: Landsstyri elected by the Faroese Parliament
elections: the queen is a constitutional monarch; high commissioner
appointed by the queen; following legislative elections, the leader of
the party that wins the most seats is usually elected prime minister
by the Faroese Parliament; election last held NA 1994 (next to be held
NA 1998)
election results: Edmund JOENSEN elected prime minister; percent of
parliamentary vote - 23.4%

Legislative branch: unicameral Faroese Parliament or Logting (32
seats; members are elected on a proportional basis from the seven
constituencies to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 July 1994 (next to be held by NA July 1998)
election results: percent of vote by party - Unionist Party 23.4%,
People's Party 16.0%, Social Democrats 15.4%, Republicans 13.7%,
Workers' Party 9.5%, Christian People 6.3%, Center Party 5.8%, Home
Rule Party 5.6%; seats by party - Unionist Party 8, People's Party 6,
Social Democrats 5, Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian People
2, Center Party 2, Home Rule Party 2
note: election of 2 seats to the Danish Parliament was last held on 21
September 1994 (next to be held by September 1998); results - percent
of vote by party - Unionist Party 22.5%, People's Party 21.7%; seats
by party - Unionist Party 1, People's Party 1

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party [Joannes
EIDESGAARD]; Workers' Party [Alis JACOBSEN]; Home Rule Party [Helena
Dam A NEYSTABO]; Unionist Party [Edmund JOENSEN]; Republican Party
[Heini O. HEINESEN]; Center Party [Tordur NICLASEN]; Christian
People's Party [Niels Pauli DANIELSEN]; People's Party [Arnfinn
KALLSBERG]

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Flag description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to
the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: The Faroese economy in 1995 and 1996 saw a
noticeable upturn after several years of decline brought on by a drop
in fish catches and declining prices and by over-spending by the
Faroese Home Rule Government (FHRG). In the early 1990s, property
values plummeted, and the FHRG had to bail out and merge the two
largest Faroese banks. Fishing is now improving; wage costs are
increasing; the FHRG's budget is almost in balance; and the large
foreign debt has come down significantly. Nevertheless, the total
dependence on fishing makes the Faroese economy extremely vulnerable,
and the reduction in the foreign debt is at the cost of low
investment. Oil finds close to the Faroese area give hope for deposits
in the immediate Faroese area, which may lay the basis for an eventual
economic rebound. Aided by a substantial annual subsidy from Denmark,
the Faroese have a standard of living comparable to the Danes and
other Scandinavians.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 6% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $16,300 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20%
industry: 16%
services : 64% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 2.8% (1996 est.)

Labor force:
total: 20,345 (1995 est.)
by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 11% (1996 est.)

Budget:
revenues : $467 million
expenditures: $468 million, including capital expenditures of $11
million (1996 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, construction, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity - capacity: 91,000 kW 000 kW

Electricity - production: 175.4 million kWh

Electricity - consumption per capita: 4,043 kWh (1995)

Agriculture - products: milk, potatoes, vegetables; sheep; salmon
farming; fish

Exports:
total value: $362 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities : fish and fish products 92%, animal feedstuffs, transport
equipment (ships)
partners: Denmark 22.2%, UK 25.8%, Germany 9.7%, France 8.3%, Norway
6.2%, US 2.0%

Imports:
total value: $315.6 (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment 17.0%, consumer goods
33%, raw materials and semi-manufactures 26.9%, fuels 11.4%, fish and
salt 6.7%
partners : Denmark 34.5%, Norway 15.9%, UK 8.4% Germany 7.8%, Sweden
5.8%, US 1.5%

Debt - external: $767 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $150
million (1995)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.117 (January 1997),
5.799 (1966), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Faroe Islands:Communications

Telephones: 26,000 of which about 3,500 are mobile telephones (1996)

Telephone system: good international communications; good domestic
facilities
domestic: digitalization to be completed in 1998
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 optical fiber
submarine cable linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1 (repeaters 13), shortwave 0

Radios: 11,800 (1996 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (repeaters 45)

Televisions: 11,600 (1996 est.)

@Faroe Islands:Transportation

Railways: 0 km

Highways:
total: 458 km
paved: 450 km
unpaved: 8 km (1995 est.)

Ports and harbors: Torshavn, Klaksvik, Tvoroyri, Runavik,
Fuglafjordhur

Merchant marine:
total : 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,979 GRT/14,531 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
1, short-sea passenger 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: no organized native military forces; only a small
Police Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $NA

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Military - note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

FIJI

@Fiji:Geography

Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 18,270 sq km
land: 18,270 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
rectilinear shelf claim added
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Elevation extremes:
lowest point : Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential

Land use:
arable land : 10%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 10%
forests and woodland: 65%
other : 11% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January

Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements:
party to : Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are
inhabited

@Fiji:People

Population: 792,441 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 35% (male 140,685; female 135,044)
15-64 years: 62% (male 246,128; female 246,001)
65 years and over : 3% (male 11,620; female 12,963) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 23.12 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 66 years
male: 63.66 years
female : 68.46 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian

Ethnic groups: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is a
Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population : 91.6%
male: 93.8%
female: 89.3% (1995 est.)

@Fiji:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
conventional short form : Fiji

Data code: FJ

Government type: republic
note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared
Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

National capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
July 1990; the 1990 constitution is under review; the review is
scheduled to be completed by 1997

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (acting president
since 15 December 1993, president since 12 January 1994); First Vice
President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994); Second
Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June 1992)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the
members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament
note : there is also a Presidential Council that advises the president
on matters of national importance and a Great Council of Chiefs which
consists of the highest ranking members of the traditional chiefly
system
elections: president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a
five-year term; prime minister appointed by the president
election results : Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA elected president; percent
of Great Council of Chiefs vote - NA

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (34
seats; 24 reserved for ethnic Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, and 1
for the island of Rotuma; members appointed by the president to serve
five-year terms) and the House of Representatives (70 seats; 37
reserved for ethnic Fijians, 27 for ethnic Indians, and 6 for
independents and others; members elected by popular vote on a communal
basis to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 18-25 February 1994
(next to be held NA 1999)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party
- NA; seats by party - SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4,
independents 2, ANC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT - primarily
Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National Federation Party
(NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian Nationalist Party
(FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP), Mahendra CHAUDHRY;
General Voters Party (GVP), Leo SMITH; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP),
leader NA; Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), leader NA; Fiji Indian
Liberal Party, leader NA; Fiji Indian Congress Party, leader NA; Fiji
Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party, leader NA;
Fijian Association Party (FAP), Josevata KAMIKAMICA; General Electors'
Association, leader NA
note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the remaining
members of the ANC have renamed their party the General Electors'
Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, PCA, Sparteca,
SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNTAES, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ratu Napolioni MASIREWA
chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
FAX : [1] (202) 337-1996
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Don Lee GEVIRTZ
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 314466
FAX: [679] 300081

Flag description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane,
a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

Economy

Economy - overview: Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish
resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports
and tourism are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar
processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000
tourists visit each year. Political uncertainty and drought, however,
contribute to substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and
sugar and to the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992, growth was
approximately 3%, based on growth in tourism and a lessening of
labor-management disputes in the sugar and gold-mining sectors. In
1993, the government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not achieved
because of a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and damage from
Cyclone Kina. Growth in 1994 of 5% was largely attributable to
increased tourism and expansion in the manufacturing sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $5.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,500 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 21%
industry: 18%
services: 61% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 3% (1997 est.)

Labor force:
total: 235,000
by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1997 est.)

Budget:
revenues: $540.65 million
expenditures : $742.65 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
(1997 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 2.9% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 200,000 kW (1993)

Electricity - production: 510 million kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 660 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice,
sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish catch
13,796 tons (1991)

Exports:
total value : $607 million (f.o.b., 1995)
commodities: sugar 32%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
partners: EU 26%, Australia 15%, other Pacific island countries 11%,
Japan 6%

Imports:
total value: $864 million (c.i.f., 1995)
commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
food, consumer goods, chemicals
partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EU 6%, US 6%

Debt - external: $333.8 million (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
recipient : ODA, $14.35 million from Australia (FY96/97 est.); $3.5
million from New Zealand (FY95/96)

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4000 (January 1997),
1.4033 (1996), 1.4063 (1995), 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Fiji:Communications

Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
center
domestic: NA
international: access to important cable link between US and Canada
and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific
Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)

@Fiji:Transportation

Railways:
total : 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
Corporation
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 3,370 km
paved: 1,655 km
unpaved : 1,715 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports and harbors: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,800 GRT/18,034 DWT
ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, passenger 1,
roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1996 est.)

Airports: 21 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m : 1
under 914 m: 15 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes
army, navy, and a small air wing)

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 210,048 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 115,766 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 8,986 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $32 million (1997)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 5% (1997)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none
______________________________________________________________________

FINLAND

@Finland:Geography

Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia,
and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 337,030 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
total : 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 6 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic
Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
arable land: 8%
permanent crops: NA%
permanent pastures : 0%
forests and woodland: 76%
other : 16% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: NA

Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and
power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from
industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens
wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental
Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine
Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost
national capital on European continent; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain

@Finland:People

Population: 5,137,269 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 19% (male 493,427; female 473,166)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,729,996; female 1,694,111)
65 years and over: 14% (male 280,231; female 466,338) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.75 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.62 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years : 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 76.97 years
male: 73.41 years
female: 80.68 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups: Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Lapp 0.11%, Gypsy 0.12%, Tatar
0.02%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other
1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official), small
Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%

@Finland:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form : Suomen Tasavalta
local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Government type: republic

National capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may
request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994)
head of government : Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the
president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term;
election last held 31 January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA
January 2000); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by
the president
election results: Martti AHTISAARI elected president; percent of vote
- Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats;
members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve
four-year terms)
elections: last held 19 March 1995 (next to be held NA March 1999)
election results : percent of vote by party - Social Democratic Party
28.3%, Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party
17.9%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party
5.1%, Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish
Christian League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%;
seats by party - Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National
Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22,
Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1,
Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus, judges appointed by
the president

Political parties and leaders:
government coalition : Social Democratic Party [Paavo LIPPONEN];
National Coalition (conservative) Party [Sauli NIINISTO]; Leftist
Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
Alternative [Claes ANDERSSON]; Swedish People's Party [(Johan) Ole
NORRBACK]; Green League [Pekka HAAVISTO]
other : Center Party [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian League [Toimi
KANKAANNIEMI]; Rural Party [Raimo VISTBACKA]; Liberal People's Party
[Tuulikki UKKOLA]; Greens Ecological Party or EPV; Young Finns [Risto
PENTTILA]

Political pressure groups and leaders: Finnish Communist Party-Unity
[Yrjo HAKANEN]; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners
Party; Communist Workers Party [Timo LAHDENMAKI]

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB,
Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU,
FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC (observer), NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG,
OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMOGIP, UNMOP, UNPREDEP,
UNTAES, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO,
ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission : Ambassador Jaakko Tapani LAAJAVA
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 171931
FAX : [358] (9) 174681

Flag description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy

Economy - overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
free-market economy, with per capita output equaling that of the UK,
France and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing -
principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is
important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP.
Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of
raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods.
Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to
maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important
export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural
population. The economy has come back from the recession of 1990-92,
which had been caused by economic overheating, depressed foreign
markets, and the dismantling of the barter system between Finland and
the former Soviet Union under which Soviet oil and gas had been
exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finns voted in an
October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially joined
the Union on 1 January 1995. Attempts to cut the unacceptably high
rate of unemployment and increasing integration with Western Europe
will dominate the economic picture over the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $97.1 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $19,000 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture : 7%
industry: 37%
services: 56% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 0.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total: 2.533 million
by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce 15.0%,
finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture and
forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction 7.2%

Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1996)

Budget:
revenues: $25.9 billion
expenditures: $35 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995
est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (1995)

Electricity - capacity: 14.14 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 60.5 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 12,373 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle;
annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Exports:
total value: $29.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
partners: EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, UK 10.3%), Sweden 11%, US 7.2%,
Japan 2.1%, FSU 8.6% (1994)

Imports:
total value : $23.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and
fabrics, fodder grains
partners : EU 44% (Germany 15%, UK 8.3%), Sweden 10.4%, US 7.6%, Japan
6.5%, FSU 10.3 (1994)

Debt - external: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $355 million (1993)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.7765 (January 1997), 4.5936
(1996), 4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@Finland:Communications

Telephones: 2.5 million (1995 est.)

Telephone system: good service from cable and microwave radio relay
network
domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
international : 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access
to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth
station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note -
Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.98 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 235

Televisions: 1.92 million (1995 est.)

@Finland:Transportation

Railways:
total: 5,895 km
broad gauge: 5,895 km 1.524-m gauge (1,993 km electrified; 480 km
double- or more-track) (1995)

Highways:
total: 77,722 km
paved: 48,965 km (including 394 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,757 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable
for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports and harbors: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu,
Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
total : 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,066,918 GRT/1,091,309
DWT
ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 22, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 12,
passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31,
short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier 1 (1996 est.)

Airports: 156 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 151
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m : 91 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea
Guard)

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49 : 1,298,576 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males: 1,068,503 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 32,985 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $1.9 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.6% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: none

Illicit drugs: minor transshipment point for Latin American cocaine
for the West European market
______________________________________________________________________

FRANCE

@France:Geography

Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering the
Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
total: 547,030 sq km
land : 545,630 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km
note: includes only metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas
administrative divisions

Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries:
total: 2,892.4 km
border countries: Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy
488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573
km

Coastline: 3,427 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone : 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean)
territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and
hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash

Land use:
arable land: 33%
permanent crops: 2%
permanent pastures : 20%
forests and woodland: 27%
other : 18% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 16,300 sq km (1995 est.)

Natural hazards: flooding

Environment - current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air
pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from
urban wastes, agricultural runoff

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous
Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation,
Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical
Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Desertification

Geography - note: largest West European nation; occasional strong,
cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral

@France:People

Population: 58,609,285 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years: 19% (male 5,712,739; female 5,449,139)
15-64 years : 65% (male 19,178,683; female 19,126,672)
65 years and over: 16% (male 3,687,216; female 5,454,836) (July 1997
est.)

Population growth rate: 0.35% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 11.98 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.08 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years : 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 78.38 years
male: 74.44 years
female: 82.53 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.66 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North
African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
Flemish)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1980 est.)

@France:Government

Country name:
conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form : Republique Francaise
local short form: France

Data code: FR

Government type: republic

National capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
"territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and is subdivided into
96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the overseas
territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso
Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis
and Futuna
note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC Maastricht
Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
head of government: Prime Minister Lionel JOSPIN (since 3 June 1997)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the
suggestion of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term;
election last held 23 April and 7 May 1995 (next to be held by May
2002); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jacques CHIRAC elected president; percent of vote,
second ballot - Jacques CHIRAC 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN 47.36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the
Senate or Senat (321 seats - 296 for metropolitan France, 13 for
overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad; members are indirectly elected by an electoral college to
serve nine-year terms; elected by thirds every three years) and the
National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats; members are
elected under a single-member majoritarian system to serve five-year
terms)
elections: Senate - last held 24 September 1995 (next to be held
September 1998); National Assembly - last held 25 May-1 June 1997
(next to be held NA May 2002)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by
party - RPR 94, UDF 127, PS 75, PCF 15, other 10; National Assembly -
percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PS 245, RPR 140, UDF
109, PCF 37, PRS 13, Ecologists 8, MDC 7, LDI-MPF 1, FN 1, various
left 9, various right 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation, judges
are appointed by the president from nominations of the High Council of
the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic or RPR [Alain
JUPPE, president]; Union for French Democracy or UDF (coalition of PR,
FD, RAD, PPDF) [Francois LEOTARD]; Republican Party or PR [Francois
LEOTARD]; Democratic Force or FD [Francois BAYROU]; Socialist Party or
PS [Lionel JOSPIN]; Radical Party or RRRS [Andre ROSSINOT, Aymeri de
MONTESQUIEU]; Communist Party or PCF [Robert HUE]; National Front or
FN [Jean-Marie LE PEN]; The Greens [Dominique VOYNET]; Generation
Ecology or GE [Brice LALONDE]; Citizens Movement or MDC [Jean Pierre
CHEVENEMENT]; National Center of Independents and Peasants or CNIP
[Jean-Antoine GIANSILY]; Radical Socialist Party or PRS; Movement for
France or LDI-MPF

Political pressure groups and leaders: Communist-controlled labor
union (Confederation Generale du Travail) or CGT, nearly 2.4 million
members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail) or CFDT, about 800,000 members
(est.); independent labor union or Force Ouvriere, 1 million members
(est.); independent white-collar union or Confederation Generale des
Cadres, 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais) or CNPF or Patronat

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer),
AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB (non-regional), CE, CERN,
EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5,
G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN Security Council, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIH, UNOMIG,
UNRWA, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francois V. BUJON DE L'ESTANG
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX : [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los
Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan
(Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN (died in office 2
February 1997)
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX : [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design
and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
flag for all French dependent areas

Economy

Economy - overview: One of the four West European trillion-dollar
economies, the French economy features considerable state control over
its capitalistic market system. In running important industrial
segments (railways, airlines, electricity, telecommunications),
administering an exceptionally generous social welfare system, and
staffing an enormous bureaucracy, the state spends about 55% of GDP.
France has substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading
agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely self-sufficient in
agricultural products, France is a major exporter of wheat and dairy
products. The industrial sector generates about one-quarter of GDP,
and the growing services sector has become crucial to the economy.
Following stagnation and recession in 1991-93, French GDP expanded
2.4% in 1994 and in 1995 but at only 1.3% in 1996. Persistently high
unemployment still poses a major problem for the government, as will
the need to cut back on government spending to keep the economy
internationally competitive and enable France to qualify for European
Economic and Monetary Union, slated to introduce a common European
currency in January 1999. The government also has laid plans to sell
off much of its stake in the telecommunications and defense industries
in 1997 as part of its bid to make domestic companies more competitive
with foreign rivals. However, the socialist victory at the polls in
June 1997 casts doubt on France's future policy toward economic union
and privatization of domestic economic activity.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.22 trillion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,900 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 26.5%
services: 71.1% (1994)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 1.7% (1996)

Labor force:
total : 25.5 million
by occupation: services 69%, industry 26%, agriculture 5% (1995)

Unemployment rate: 12.7% (1966)

Budget:
revenues: $250 billion
expenditures: $300 billion, including capital expenditures of $34
billion (1996 est.)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 102.94 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 492.7 billion kWh (1995)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 6,278 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine
grapes; beef, dairy products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks
among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Exports:
total value: $275 billion (f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
and clothing
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 9%, UK 9%, Spain 8%, Belgium-Luxembourg
8%, US 6%, Netherlands 4.5%, Japan 2%, Russia 0.7% (1996)

Imports:
total value: $255.5 billion f.o.b., 1996)
commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products
partners: Germany 17%, Italy 10%, US 8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8%, UK 8%,
Spain 7%, Netherlands 5%, Japan 3%, Russia 1.5% (1996)

Debt - external: $117.6 billion (1996 est.)

Economic aid:
donor : ODA, $7.915 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.4169 (January 1997),
5.1155 (1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938
(1992)

Fiscal year: calendar year

@France:Communications

Telephones: 35 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed
domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive
introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of 5
antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat,
1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region); HF radiotelephone communications
with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters), shortwave
0

Radios: 49 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
note: Eutelsat receive-only TV service

Televisions: 29.3 million (1993 est.)

@France:Transportation

Railways:
total: 34,123 km
standard gauge: 33,524 km 1.435-m gauge; 32,275 km are operated by
French National Railways (SNCF); 13,741 km of SNCF routes are
electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked
narrow gauge : 599 km 1.000-m gauge
note: does not include 33 tourist railroads, totaling 469 km, many
being of very narrow gauge (1995)

Highways:
total: 1,512,700 km
paved : 812,700 km (including 9,140 km of expressways)
unpaved: 700,000 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural
gas 24,746 km

Ports and harbors: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La
Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen,
Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,038,151 GRT/1,441,498
DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 4, combination bulk 1,
container 7, liquefied gas tanker 3, multi-function large load carrier
1, oil tanker 13, passenger 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 5, short-sea
passenger 7, specialized tanker 1
note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships
in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) (1996
est.)

Airports: 460 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 382
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 91
914 to 1,523 m : 73
under 914 m: 179 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 78
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m : 75 (1996 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army (includes Marines), Navy (includes Naval Air),
Air Force (includes Air Defense, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
males age 15-49: 14,800,821 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
males : 12,315,337 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
males: 394,362 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $47.7 billion (1995)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 2.5% (1995)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles
claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana;
territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and
Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France; in 1992 an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive
economic zone area of 12,348 sq km to settle the dispute; claims
Matthew and Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for and consumer of South American
cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin
______________________________________________________________________

FRENCH GUIANA

(overseas department of France) 

@French Guiana:Geography

Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
total: 91,000 sq km
land: 89,150 sq km
water: 1,850 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
total: 1,183 km
border countries : Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea : 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 83%
other : 17% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
thunderstorms; flooding

Environment - current issues: NA

Environment - international agreements:
party to: NA
signed, but not ratified: NA

Geography - note: mostly an unsettled wilderness

@French Guiana:People

Population: 156,946 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:
0-14 years : 32% (male 25,267; female 24,146)
15-64 years: 63% (male 54,051; female 45,489)
65 years and over: 5% (male 4,014; female 3,979) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.62% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 24.19 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 4.56 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: 16.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female
65 years and over : 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.13 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (19